The Church of the Holy Ghost (Helligåndskirken) is one of the Copenhagen's oldest churches. The first abbey in Copenhagen was a Franciscan monastery founded in 1238, just 12 years after the death of Francis of Assisi. Prior to that, Archbishop Eskil had founded two Cistercian monasteries, Esrom Abbey and Herrevad Abbey. Typically for the order, they had been founded at more remote locations in Northern Zealand and Skåneland. At first, the new institution in Copenhagen was more of a hostal and workshop for travelling monks than a monastery proper. It was expanded on a number of occasions and remained the only monastery and a central part of the city's life for the next 250 years.
In 1296, a hospital was built by Roskilde Bishop Johannes Krag who was member of the powerful Krag-Hvide noble family. Johannes Krag's strict rule over the city had brought its population to an uprising. They attempted to storm Bishop's Palace at Slotsholmen and as part of a settlement, Krag agreed to build what was known as a House of the Holy Ghost. Such houses were facilities which cared for the sick, the poor and the old, more refuges for the weak and disabled than hospitals in the modern sense of the word.
The construction of the new building was to be paid for by the bishop and the citizens in equal shares. For its support, an annual ground rent was assessed all properties. Over the years, the hospital also received its own endowments, mainly of property, which provided income for its support. Next to the hospital a small church was built although it is not known exactly when it was added to the complex.
In 1469, King Christian I transformed the hospital into an abbey. Later, on his journey to Rome in 1474, Pope Sixtus IV acknowledged it as an institution under the Order of the Holy Ghost, with Santo Spirito in Rome as inspiration and mother church.
The abbey consisted of four wings around a courtyard. Of these the present-day church has evolved from the south wing while the House of the Holy Ghost is the former west wing. Originally the church did not have a tower. Construction of a tower was commenced in 1520 but before long the Reformation brought things to a standstill and in 1530 the abbey was decommissioned.
After the reformation the church was converted into a parish church. At the initiative of Christoffer Valkendorff, at that time Governor of Copenhagen, work on the tower was resumed in 1582. Brickwork was continued in another bond, making the transition between the old and the new part of the tower easily detectable. The tower was topped by a spire mounted in August 1594.References:
The Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius is a world famous spiritual centre of the Russian Orthodox Church and a popular site of pilgrimage and tourism. It is the most important working Russian monastery and a residence of the Patriarch. This religious and military complex represents an epitome of the growth of Russian architecture and contains some of that architecture’s finest expressions. It exerted a profound influence on architecture in Russia and other parts of Eastern Europe.
The Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius, was founded in 1337 by the monk Sergius of Radonezh. Sergius achieved great prestige as the spiritual adviser of Dmitri Donskoi, Great Prince of Moscow, who received his blessing to the battle of Kulikov of 1380. The monastery started as a little wooden church on Makovets Hill, and then developed and grew stronger through the ages.
Over the centuries a unique ensemble of more than 50 buildings and constructions of different dates were established. The whole complex was erected according to the architectural concept of the main church, the Trinity Cathedral (1422), where the relics of St. Sergius may be seen.
In 1476 Pskovian masters built a brick belfry east of the cathedral dedicated to the Descent of the Holy Spirit on the Apostles. The church combines unique features of early Muscovite and Pskovian architecture. A remarkable feature of this church is a bell tower under its dome without internal interconnection between the belfry and the cathedral itself.
The Cathedral of the Assumption, echoing the Cathedral of the Assumption in the Moscow Kremlin, was erected between 1559 and 1585. The frescoes of the Assumption Cathedral were painted in 1684. At the north-western corner of the Cathedral, on the site of the western porch, in 1780 a vault containing burials of Tsar Boris Godunov and his family was built.
In the 16th century the monastery was surrounded by 6 meters high and 3,5 meters thick defensive walls, which proved their worth during the 16-month siege by Polish-Lithuanian invaders during the Time of Trouble. They were later strengthened and expanded.
After the Upheaval of the 17th century a large-scale building programme was launched. At this time new buildings were erected in the north-western part of the monastery, including infirmaries topped with a tented church dedicated to Saints Zosima and Sawatiy of Solovki (1635-1637). Few such churches are still preserved, so this tented church with a unique tiled roof is an important contribution to the Lavra.
In the late 17th century a number of new buildings in Naryshkin (Moscow) Baroque style were added to the monastery.
Following a devastating fire in 1746, when most of the wooden buildings and structures were destroyed, a major reconstruction campaign was launched, during which the appearance of many of the buildings was changed to a more monumental style. At this time one of the tallest Russian belfries (88 meters high) was built.
In the late 18th century, when many church lands were secularized, the chaotic planning of the settlements and suburbs around the monastery was replaced by a regular layout of the streets and quarters. The town of Sergiev Posad was surrounded by traditional ramparts and walls. In the vicinity of the monastery a number of buildings belonging to it were erected: a stable yard, hotels, a hospice, a poorhouse, as well as guest and merchant houses. Major highways leading to the monastery were straightened and marked by establishing entry squares, the overall urban development being oriented towards the centrepiece - the Ensemble of the Trinity Sergius Lavra.
In 1993, the Trinity Lavra was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.