Nordborg Castle was, according to Saxo, founded by Svend Grathe under the name Alsborg. Hence, this can be dated to around 1150. Alsborg was built whilst the Wends still dominated the Danish coast; its location a few kilometers inland meant that the castle could not be attacked without warning, and the local population had a better chance of taking refuge there. The first written evidence of Alsborg is from the end of the 12th century. From this it is known that Bishop Valdemar of Slesvig was held prisoner at Alsborg between 1192 and 1197. After Sønderborg Castle was built, Alsborg was renamed Nordborg.
Nordborg was part of the King's properties in the Middle Ages, and was on several occasions a source of income for the king's widow. In 1571 Frederik II’s brother Hans the Younger inherited his mother Dorothea's possessions of Als and Sundeved including Nordborg. Hans was an enterprising man, who in the next 50 years constantly expanded and improved his properties. There was a series of building projects in and around Nordborg Castle. Upon Hans the Younger's death in 1622 his possessions were divided into separate dukedoms, including Nordborg, which went to his son Hans Adolf. Hans Adolf died only two years later and so the dukedom then went to Hans the Younger's other son Frederik.
Nordborg was occupied several times during the Swedish wars, first by the Swedes, then by the Brandenburgian and Polish troops and finally by Swedish troops until peace came in 1660. In 1665 fire broke out in the castle, and it burnt down. Duke Johan Bugislaw went bankrupt and forfeited his estate, which reverted next to August of Plön. In 1678 rebuilding of the castle began, and at this time the ducal coat-of-arms was placed over the castle entrance.
In 1730 Nordborg was taken back into crown possession. Nordborg had an estate of around 400 hectares, but in the following decades the land was turned into farms and in 1766 the castle was sold to a private owner and some of the buildings were demolished and sold for building materials.
In 1909 the castle was purchased by Nordborg town. It was the pro-German Mayor Klinkers' dream to build a high school, which would be a counterweight for the Danish high schools north of the border. The castle was thereafter restored by the architect Eugen Fink, and in 1910 the castle was leased out to the German high school association inNorthern Schleswig. After the reunification in 1920 the castle was bought by the merchant Johan Hansen. He established Nordborg Slot Foundation, which since 1922 has run a Danish boarding school at the castle.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.