Mårup Church was built around 1250 in the late Romanesque style. It was a simple brick structure typical of Jutland village churches, consisting of nave and choir. A tower existing in the 18th century was demolished and a free-standing bell tower was erected of wood. The church had arched pilasters, some of which can still be seen.
On December 6, 1808, HMS Crescent, a British frigate on its way to Gothenburg, Sweden, sank while bringing supplies to the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars. More than 200 sailors were buried in a common grave; seven officers and 55 seamen survived. Two additional British ships sank off Denmark"s west coast and the British installed a tablet to honor the dead in 1895.
The church was used until 1926, when a new church was built in nearby Lønstrup. The old building was maintained by the National Museum of Denmark, which took possession of the church in 1952. In 1998, extensive archaeological work was undertaken on the site. The church had preservation status until 2005, when it was terminated so that the building could be dismantled. The final church service was held Easter 2008.
Lønstrup Klint is geologically unique and has lost on average 1.5 meters to erosion per year for the past 300 years. While erosion continued to threaten the church, shifting sands have been burying the Rubjerg Knude lighthouse a short distance to the south. The lighthouse operated for just a few decades, while adjacent buildings were turned into a museum about the shifting sands. A few years later, it was abandoned.
Heavy storms in the late 20th century and early 21st so harmed the coast that one corner of the church was damaged and by the mid-2000s, the sea was just 9 meters from the church. There were heated debates over what to do, whether to let nature take its course, or to take action and try to save church. Danish firms tried to protect the coast and prevent sand erosion. In August 2007, after four years of discussion, the Danish National Museum, in view of the considerable cost and local public resistance, decided to relocate the church to an open-air museum. At the end of November 2007, the authorities responsible for culture and land protection decided to dismantle the church. In autumn 2008, the roof and interior of the church were removed and put in storage; the walls were left behind. In autumn 2011, the western wall was dismantled, leaving remnants of only three walls with an open view to the sea. In summer and autumn 2012, severe erosion north and south of the site caused large chunks of land to fall into the sea. As of November 2012, the church rests a mere nine meters from the steep cliff. Authorities are monitoring the situation in order to determine if and when to dismantle more of the church.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.