Church of the Cross was a small medieval parish church for the northern part of the Old Town of Oslo. The ruin was rediscovered in 1922 and is now a part of the Ruin Park containing the ruins of the church and the greater St. Hallvard's Cathedral.
There is no definite information about when the church was built. The church is not mentioned in the sources of the fighting in Oslo in 1240 between King Haakon IV and Duke Skule, suggesting that it is possibly younger. In 1989 it was found a stick with runic inscriptions, dated to the first half of the 1200s. The name Church of the Cross occurs in this inscriptions, and it indicates that it may be older than 1240. When the church was built, it was located far north in the city, and an urban development north of the church came in the second half of the 1200s and the 1300s.
Church of the Cross had input from the west, from the cemetery, an entrance from the west and an entrance directly to the chancel from the south. The remains of the original altar foundation is visible. Around the church are the remains of the cemetery wall.References:
The city walls of Avila were built in the 11th century to protect the citizens from the Moors. They have been well maintained throughout the centuries and are now a major tourist attraction as well as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Visitors can walk around about half of the length of the walls.
The layout of the city is an even quadrilateral with a perimeter of 2,516 m. Its walls, which consist in part of stones already used in earlier constructions, have an average thickness of 3 m. Access to the city is afforded by nine gates of different periods; twin 20 m high towers, linked by a semi-circular arch, flank the oldest ones, Puerta de San Vicente and Puerta del Alcázar.