Fort Legionow was built between 1852 and 1854 on the southern foreland of the Warsaw Citadel. Initially, the fort had the shape of a three-storey artillery turret, surrounded by a fortified ditch with three cofferdams and a gallery in the counterscarp. Its task was to guard the citadel from the side of the New Town and also to defend the seasonal bridge over the Vistula River.
In the years between 1866 and 1874 the fort was modernized. A battery emplacement in the shape of the letter “L” was built between the bastion and the River Vistula, equipped with two emergency brick shelters and also a brick battery which was meant to control the Vistula River bed. The fort survived during the Warsaw Uprising despite the ongoing fierce fighting over the Polish Security Printing Works and after 1945 it was used by the military.
Since 1999, the fort has been privately owned by a well-known family of Warsaw restaurateurs, Agnieszka and Marcin Kreglicki. Three buildings have survived in Warsaw arranged around the Citadel. Fort Legionow is the only structure in the Warsaw Citadel of a “mountainous” nature, with a complex underground system.References:
Montparnasse Cemetery was created from three farms in 1824. Cemeteries had been banned from Paris since the closure, owing to health concerns, of the Cimetière des Innocents in 1786. Several new cemeteries outside the precincts of the capital replaced all the internal Parisian ones in the early 19th century: Montmartre Cemetery in the north, Père Lachaise Cemetery in the east, and Montparnasse Cemetery in the south. At the heart of the city, and today sitting in the shadow of the Eiffel Tower, is Passy Cemetery.
Montparnasse cemetery is the burial place of many of France's intellectual and artistic elite as well as publishers and others who promoted the works of authors and artists. There are also many graves of foreigners who have made France their home, as well as monuments to police and firefighters killed in the line of duty in the city of Paris.
The cemetery is divided by Rue Émile Richard. The small section is usually referred to as the small cemetery (petit cimetière) and the large section as the big cemetery (grand cimetière).
Although Baudelaire is buried in this cemetery (division 6), there is also a cenotaph to him (between division 26 and 27). Because of the many notable people buried there, it is a highly popular tourist attraction.