Eberbach Castle consists of three separate castles situated about 160 metres high above the river Neckar. It is assumed that the front castle was built in the last quarter of the 12th century, the middle castle ca. 1200 and the rear castle in the second quarter of the 13th century. In 1227 King Henry VII was given Eberbach Castle as a fief by the Bishop of Worms. Presumably the castles remained in the possession of the empire until 1330. After that, the castles were pledged to the palsgraves who subsequently used them as a bailiwick of the Electoral Palatinate.
In 1402 Ruprecht III of the Palatinate pledged the town and the castles to the knight Hans von Hirschhorn. In 1403 he obtained permission from the king to demolish and raze the castle, since presumably it was not of any use, but only entailed costs. He thus got rid of competitors for his castles in Hirschhorn and Zwingenberg. By and by the ruins were dismantled and their stones used for building projects in Eberbach, in particular for building walls to fend off game in order to protect the fields lying next to the woodland. Excavations in 1908-09 and 1927-28 exposed the remains of the front and middle castles, and some parts were reconstructed. From 1959-1963 systematic scientific research was carried out, and the rear castle was reconstructed in parts.References:
The city walls of Avila were built in the 11th century to protect the citizens from the Moors. They have been well maintained throughout the centuries and are now a major tourist attraction as well as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Visitors can walk around about half of the length of the walls.
The layout of the city is an even quadrilateral with a perimeter of 2,516 m. Its walls, which consist in part of stones already used in earlier constructions, have an average thickness of 3 m. Access to the city is afforded by nine gates of different periods; twin 20 m high towers, linked by a semi-circular arch, flank the oldest ones, Puerta de San Vicente and Puerta del Alcázar.