The Cathedral of Saint Lawrence, standing at the top of Petřín hill in the Lesser Town, is a church, which serve as the cathedral of the Old Catholic Church in the Czech Republic. With its altitude of 327 metres above sea level this was the highest place in Prague for a long time.
The cathedral is located on a site, where pagan Slavs made their ceremonies and lighted sacred fires and where princess Libuše, according to a legend, made a prophecy about future splendour and fame of Prague. It is said that Duke Boleslav II (by request of Prague bishop Saint Adalbert) had a small church built there, consecrated to Saint Lawrence.
The oldest written source about the chapel of Saint Lawrence dates back to 1135. In that time it was a single-nave romanesque building with an apse on the east end and a tower on the west. The walls of this Romanesque building are partially preserved in the present church. It was built probably during the reign of Duke Soběslav I and was similar in style to the church of the Holy Cross in the Old Town, which is now also used by the Old Catholic Church.
In 1590 the chapel was restored by George Henry of Frankenstein. In the 18th century the church was reubilt due to P. Norbert Saazer and the Guild of Prague cooks. The construction lasted from 1730s to the year 1780. The project was made by architect K. I. Dientzenhofer. A new monumental Baroque north face of the building was created, with statues of Holy Trinity, St John of Nepomuk and St Mary Magdalene. There is also the coat of arms of prior František Strachovský ze Strachovic, who oversaw the building work. In the niche there is a statue of St Adalbert.
As for the furnishings, the most notable item is a painting of the martyrdom of St Lawrence by Burgundian painter Jean Claud Monnot on the right side altar. Today’s interior is a work of Architect Jiří Pelcl, including a modern crucifix, hanging from the ceiling.
Chapel of Calvary, standing next to the church, was built in 1735. Its face is decorated by a sgraffito of the Resurrection. The Way of the Cross on Petřín with 14 stations also belong to the church.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.