The Bergkirche was built in the early 18th century by Prince Paul Esterházy. Eisenstadt was the seat of the Esterházy family, and the church lies just short walk to the west of the family's main palace.
The Bergkirche is architecturally quite unusual and is built in two parts. The main section, the church proper, is approximately a square. The interior is in Baroque style. The ceiling takes the form of a dome, which was painted in fresco in the late 18th century.
A side chapel is dominated by a large marble sarcophagus, the tomb of the composer Joseph Haydn, who spent much of his career in Eisenstadt working for the Esterházys. The remains of most of Haydn's body have rested here since 1932; the skull was added (with due pomp and ceremony) only in 1954; for the reason for the disparity see Haydn's head.
The church still possesses its original organ, built in the 18th century by the Viennese maker Gottfried Malleck; the instrument has been restored to its original state, as it was when it was played by Haydn and Beethoven at the premieres of famous works. The original console, however, is no longer used but resides now in the nearby Haydn Museum.References:
German crusaders known as the Livonian Brothers of the Sword began construction of the Cēsis castle (Wenden) near the hill fort in 1209. When the castle was enlarged and fortified, it served as the residence for the Order's Master from 1237 till 1561, with periodic interruptions. Its ruins are some of the most majestic castle ruins in the Baltic states. Once the most important castle of the Livonian Order, it was the official residence for the masters of the order.
In 1577, during the Livonian War, the garrison destroyed the castle to prevent it from falling into the control of Ivan the Terrible, who was decisively defeated in the Battle of Wenden (1578).
In 1598 it was incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Wenden Voivodship was created here. In 1620 Wenden was conquered by Sweden. It was rebuilt afterwards, but was destroyed again in 1703 during the Great Northern War by the Russian army and left in a ruined state. Already from the end of the 16th century, the premises of the Order's castle were adjusted to the requirements of the Cēsis Castle estate. When in 1777 the Cēsis Castle estate was obtained by Count Carl Sievers, he had his new residence house built on the site of the eastern block of the castle, joining its end wall with the fortification tower.
Since 1949, the Cēsis History Museum has been located in this New Castle of the Cēsis Castle estate. The front yard of the New Castle is enclosed by a granary and a stable-coach house, which now houses the Exhibition Hall of the Museum. Beside the granary there is the oldest brewery in Latvia, Cēsu alus darītava, which was built in 1878 during the later Count Sievers' time, but its origins date back to the period of the Livonian Order. Further on, the Cēsis Castle park is situated, which was laid out in 1812. The park has the romantic characteristic of that time, with its winding footpaths, exotic plants, and the waters of the pond reflecting the castle's ruins. Nowadays also one of the towers is open for tourists.