Maretsch Castle (Castel Mareccio) is a picturesque 13th century castle surrounded by vineyards. The oldest tower of the castle has been built in 1194 by Berthold von Maretsch - according to documents he was a commissary of the Lords of Tyrol and lawyer in Bolzano. In the beginning there was only the massive donjon, which can still be seen today.
In the 13th and 14th century different owners kept amplifying the castle complex. Also the defensive corridor and the crenellations date back to these times. In 1477 Sigmund Römer purchased the complex. The Römer family started rebuilding the castle, changing the medieval complex into a Renaissance building between 1560 and 1570. Four round towers were added in the course of these works which lasted for several decades. Also frescos were commissioned illustrating philosophers of these days.
In the 1980s the building has been restored but is no longer inhabited. Today this castle is merely venue for fairs, concerts, weddings and various other events. From the old town of Bolzano, capital city of the province of South Tyrol, you can reach Castel Mareccio within a few minutes’ walk.References:
Goryōkaku (五稜郭) (literally, 'five-point fort') is a star fort in the Japanese city of Hakodate on the island of Hokkaido. The fortress was completed in 1866. It was the main fortress of the short-lived Republic of Ezo.
Goryōkaku was designed in 1855 by Takeda Ayasaburō and Jules Brunet. Their plans was based on the work of the French architect Vauban. The fortress was completed in 1866, two years before the collapse of the Tokugawa Shogunate. It is shaped like a five-pointed star. This allowed for greater numbers of gun emplacements on its walls than a traditional Japanese fortress, and reduced the number of blind spots where a cannon could not fire.
The fort was built by the Tokugawa shogunate to protect the Tsugaru Strait against a possible invasion by the Meiji government.
Goryōkaku is famous as the site of the last battle of the Boshin War.