Fort Vrmac is a former fortification of the Austro-Hungarian Empire located on the southern end of the Vrmac ridge near Tivat. Established in 1860, the present structure was built between 1894 and 1897, and saw action during the First World War, when it was heavily bombarded by the Montenegrins. It was repaired and disarmed before the end of the war and was abandoned after a period of occupation by Yugoslav troops. Today it is one of the best preserved Austro-Hungarian fortifications in the Bay of Kotor area.
The fort comprises a heavily reinforced stone and concrete structure situated within a ditch, defended by three caponiers. There is a single entrance on the north side, accessed from the ditch and protected by a caponier. The design is similar to that of the 'Vogl period' fortresses in South Tyrol, with an irregular pentagonal shape constructed on two levels. The main guns were housed in armoured casemates, with howitzers and observation turrets in steel cupolas made by Škoda in Pilsen.
The roof of the fort is a 1.5 m thick slab of concrete that was installed in 1906–1907 following improvements to Montenegrin artillery capabilities. The barracks rooms are located on the ground and first floors on the north side while the casemates are situated on the other sides of the fort, facing towards what was then potentially hostile territory. A separate structure a short distance to the north of the fort was used as an ammunition magazine.References:
Built around AD 90 to entertain the legionaries stationed at the fort of Caerleon (Isca), the impressive amphitheatre was the Roman equivalent of today’s multiplex cinema. Wooden benches provided seating for up to 6,000 spectators, who would gather to watch bloodthirsty displays featuring gladiatorial combat and exotic wild animals.
Long after the Romans left, the amphitheatre took on a new life in Arthurian legend. Geoffrey of Monmouth, the somewhat imaginative 12th-century scholar, wrote in his History of the Kings of Britain that Arthur was crowned in Caerleon and that the ruined amphitheatre was actually the remains of King Arthur’s Round Table.
Today it is the most complete Roman amphitheatre in Britain.