The land for the Hauterive abbey was donated between 1132-1137 by Baron Guillaume de Glâne (died in 1143, his grave is in the church). After monks moved down from Cherlieu Abbey in northern Burgundy and inhabited the buildings, the Bishop of Lausanne granted permission to consecrate the abbey in 1137. It was then consecrated on 25 February 1138. With support from the local nobility and the Bishop of Lausanne, the abbey flourished both economically and culturally in the 12th and early 13th centuries. In 1157 the Dukes of Zähringen granted the abbey their protection and exemption from tolls.
The abbey quickly became tied to the city of Fribourg when they began raising sheep for wool to sell to the city. After 1182, citizens of Fribourg had the right to be buried at the abbey. The Chartular of Hauterive as well as confirmation bull of Innocent III in 1198 and Innocent IV in 1247 all give evidence of a prosperous abbey with extensive landholdings. The abbey was supported by nine villages, in the alpine foothills (dairy industry), the Swiss plateau (agriculture) and Lake Geneva (wine). The construction of canals in the 12th century, allowed the abbey to build several grain mills and a fulling mill. In 1445 a paper mill was built as well. From the mid-12th century until the 14th there was a significant scriptorium and library at the abbey. The library suffered a number of losses through looting and fires, especially the fire of 1578.
In 1185, the monks from Hauterive founded Kappel Abbey in Kappel am Albis in the Canton of Zurich. In 1261, the La Maigrauge nunnery near Fribourg was placed under the authority of Hauterive. At the end of the 12th century and the early 13th century, the monastery was home to 30-40 monks and about 50 conversi or lay brothers. During this time, the abbey's estates were managed by the lay brothers. In the 14th century, the number of lay brothers decreased and the abbey was forced to lease out the farms.
Under Abbot Peter Rych (1320–28) the cloister was decorated with tracery windows and the gothic church choir was decorated with six tracery and stained glass windows. Under Abbot Jean Philibert (1472–88) the extensive late gothic choir stalls were added. In 1418 Pope Martin V, during his trip through Switzerland to the Council of Constance, granted abbot Peter Affry (1404–49) and his successors the pontifical vestments.
During the Sempach war (1386–87), the abbey supported Fribourg and was plundered. During the 1448 war between Bern and Fribourg, the abbey was pillaged by Bernese troops. The damage to the abbey and its lands along with internal conflicts brought about a decline of the abbey.
Around the middle of the 16th century, Fribourg embraced the reforms of the Council of Trent. The city set out to reform and revitalize neighboring monasteries. They enacted reforming provisions in 1562, and appointed an administrator to enact these reforms in the monasteries in 1566. In 1579, the papal nuncio Giovanni Francesco Bonomi visited Hauterive. The reform minded abbot Moënnat Guillaume (1616–40), reorganized the nunneries of La Maigrauge and La Fille-Dieu in Romont. In 1618, Hauterive became a member of the Upper-Germanies Cistercian Congregation. The baroque reconstruction of the convent building began in 1715 under Abbot Henri de Fivaz (1715–42) and was completed in 1770 under Bernhard Emmanuel of Lenzburg (1761–95). These second flourishing of the abbey stopped in 1798 when they had to pay a war indemnity, after the French invasion, and lost the right to self-rule. In 1811 there were ten priests and six brothers at the abbey, while in 1847, there were 16 priests and two brothers.
The abbey and its lands were secularized in 1848 after the Sonderbund war. The archive and library, including the largest collection of medieval manuscripts in western Switzerland were transferred to Fribourg. The building became an agricultural school in 1850. In 1859 it became the district teacher's college. It was settled by monks from Wettingen-Mehrerau Abbey in 1939 and became an abbey again in 1973. The buildings and lands, which are farmed by the monks, are held by a foundation. The monks other main activity is the housing and care of guests.References:
The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba, also known as the Great Mosque of Córdoba and the Mezquita is regarded as one of the most accomplished monuments of Moorish architecture.
According to a traditional account, a small Visigoth church, the Catholic Basilica of Saint Vincent of Lérins, originally stood on the site. In 784 Abd al-Rahman I ordered construction of the Great Mosque, which was considerably expanded by later Muslim rulers. The mosque underwent numerous subsequent changes: Abd al-Rahman II ordered a new minaret, while in 961 Al-Hakam II enlarged the building and enriched the Mihrab. The last of such reforms was carried out by Almanzor in 987. It was connected to the Caliph"s palace by a raised walkway, mosques within the palaces being the tradition for previous Islamic rulers – as well as Christian Kings who built their palaces adjacent to churches. The Mezquita reached its current dimensions in 987 with the completion of the outer naves and courtyard.
In 1236, Córdoba was conquered by King Ferdinand III of Castile, and the centre of the mosque was converted into a Catholic cathedral. Alfonso X oversaw the construction of the Villaviciosa Chapel and the Royal Chapel within the mosque. The kings who followed added further Christian features, such as King Henry II rebuilding the chapel in the 14th century. The minaret of the mosque was also converted to the bell tower of the cathedral. It was adorned with Santiago de Compostela"s captured cathedral bells. Following a windstorm in 1589, the former minaret was further reinforced by encasing it within a new structure.
The most significant alteration was the building of a Renaissance cathedral nave in the middle of the expansive structure. The insertion was constructed by permission of Charles V, king of Castile and Aragon. Artisans and architects continued to add to the existing structure until the late 18th century.
The building"s floor plan is seen to be parallel to some of the earliest mosques built from the very beginning of Islam. It had a rectangular prayer hall with aisles arranged perpendicular to the qibla, the direction towards which Muslims pray. The prayer hall was large and flat, with timber ceilings held up by arches of horseshoe-like appearance.
In planning the mosque, the architects incorporated a number of Roman columns with choice capitals. Some of the columns were already in the Gothic structure; others were sent from various regions of Iberia as presents from the governors of provinces. Ivory, jasper, porphyry, gold, silver, copper, and brass were used in the decorations. Marvellous mosaics and azulejos were designed. Later, the immense temple embodied all the styles of Morisco architecture into one composition.
The building is most notable for its arcaded hypostyle hall, with 856 columns of jasper, onyx, marble, granite and porphyry. These were made from pieces of the Roman temple that had occupied the site previously, as well as other Roman buildings, such as the Mérida amphitheatre. The double arches were an innovation, permitting higher ceilings than would otherwise be possible with relatively low columns. The double arches consist of a lower horseshoe arch and an upper semi-circular arch.