Originally a Paulist Church, Varaždin church of Assumption of Mary into Heaven became a Cathedral of the newly established Diocese of Varaždin in 1997. The whole complex was built in the 17th century. The architect of the Church was George Matot, and was constructed between 1642 and 1656, when it was consecrated. A bell tower with a distinctive bulb was completed twenty years after the church. The current appearance of the Cathedral was completed in the 18th century.
The Cathedral’s facade is carved into the form of a triumphal arch with columns, gables and niches. In the central niche is a statue of Mary which was created in the 17th century. Below the niche is the Drašković Family coats of arms, who were the main donor of the Jesuit order and the Cathedral. The main altar is the largest in Varaždin, measuring 11m by 14m. In the manner of the baroque, the imitation marble columns that carry the entire altar are in fact wooden as well as the altar. At the top of the central altar is a scene of the Holy Trinity. Above the tabernacle is a relief depicting a representative image of the Last Supper by an unknown Baroque painter, with the theme of the Ascension of Mary.
The cathedral has six chapels; three on each side of the nave. The first chapel on the right hand side is dedicated to St. Francis Xavier, and is adorned with images and plastic that speak of the life and merits of this Saint. The second chapel has no altar, just images of the execution of a female saint and Ignatius of Loyola; the founder of the Jesuit order. The third chapel reveals good baroque paintings by an unknown painter, which shows Jesus – the ruler of the world – and image of the Assumption.
To the left side of the nave is the sanctuary of the first chapel dedicated to Ignatius of Loyola. The central image depicts Jesus appearing in a vision to Ignatius Loyola. To the side are sculptures of St. Fabian and St. Sebastian. On the second left is a picture of the Chapel of St. Francis of Serafin. The third chapel belonged to the Draškovic Family, and is separated by beautiful wrought iron railings. It houses a richly gilded baroque altar of the Holy Cross. This depicts the sacrifice on the cross and five sculptures; Veronica, Barbara, Mary, John and Mary Magdalene.
Built along with the Cathedral was the monastery. The use for the building itself changed frequently after the prohibition of the Jesuits and the abolition of Pauline monastery in Croatia. Today it houses the Faculty of Organization and Informatics. The frescoes and stucco work on the stairs that you can see from the street are the only features to survive along with the external structure.
The Jesuits completed the construction of the complex by building of the Gymnasium. It began as a wooden building until 1651, when the single-storey corner building was built. Today, the building is the office of the Bishop Ordinary.
The Jesuits founded the School upon their arrival in Varaždin, beginning work in 1636. The School is the third oldest in the country, built immediately after those in Rijeka and Zagreb. The School has over the centuries come to symbolize the city.References:
Tyniec Benedictine abbey was founded by King Casimir the Restorer probably around 1044. Casimir decided to rebuild the newly established Kingdom of Poland, after a Pagan rebellion and a disastrous Czech raid of Duke Bretislaus I (1039). The Benedictines, invited to Tyniec by the King, were tasked with restoring order as well as cementing the position of the State and the Church. First Tyniec Abbot was Aaron, who became the Bishop of Kraków. Since there is no conclusive evidence to support the foundation date as 1040, some historians claim that the abbey was founded by Casimir the Restorer’ son, King Boleslaw II the Generous.
In the second half of the 11th century, a complex of Romanesque buildings was completed, consisting of a basilica and the abbey. In the 14th century, it was destroyed in Tatar and Czech raids, and in the 15th century it was rebuilt in Gothic style. Further remodelings took place in the 17th and 18th centuries, first in Baroque, then in Rococo style. The abbey was partly destroyed in the Swedish invasion of Poland, and soon afterwards was rebuilt, with a new library. Further destruction took place during the Bar Confederation, when Polish rebels turned the abbey into their fortress.
In 1816, Austrian authorities liquidated the abbey, and in 1821-1826, it was the seat of the Bishop of Tyniec, Grzegorz Tomasz Ziegler. The monks, however, did not return to the abbey until 1939, and in 1947, remodelling of the neglected complex was initiated. In 1968, the Church of St. Peter and Paul was once again named the seat of the abbot. The church itself consists of a Gothic presbytery and a Baroque main nave. Several altars were created by an 18th-century Italian sculptor Francesco Placidi. The church also has a late Baroque pulpit by Franciszek Jozef Mangoldt.