Innerjuvalt was built about 2 km south-east of the older Hochjuvalt Castle by the Freiherr von Juvalt. It was built in two parts on a narrow rocky outcropping above the entrance to the Domleschg Valley. The upper castle was first built around 1250 and was expanded around 1273. In 1342 two of the von Juvalt family, Albrecht and Bertram, appeared in a probate court to settle their inheritance, with Bertram giving up his rights to Innerjuvalt. In 1372 Elgof and Friedrich von Juvalt divided the inheritance again, with Eglof receiving the castle, its meadows, a mill and vineyards. In 1382 Egolf's wife Ursula was living in the castle. In 1423 Rudolf von Juvalt was ordered to continually live in the castle, but by 1440 they had moved to the more accessible lower castle. However, they added a third story to the tower in the late 15th century.
In 1462 Barbara von Juvalt sold the castle to her brother in law Pedrutt von Wannis. A few decades later it was abandoned and by 1570 was described as a ruin.
The upper castle was built around 1250 as a two story palas, probably to house workers as they completed the castle. A two story main tower and an attached residential wing were added to the north-east of the palas. A third story was added to the tower in the late 15th century. A wall was built on lower western side of the outcropping, with the remainder protected by steep cliffs. A bakery and a cistern were built along this wall. Beginning in 1979 the communities of Domleschg and the Burgenvereine Graubünden added a new roof and repaired and rebuilt the castle. The ruins were excavated in 1980, 1982 and 1990. Today the castle grounds are open for visitors and the tower can be rented by small groups.
The lower castle was built at the foot of the cliff. It consisted of a ring wall with a gatehouse on the southern side. A large palas or residential building was built along the wall. The northern side of the courtyard was terraced for farming. Today very little of the lower castle remains.References:
The Abbey of Saint-Etienne, also known as Abbaye aux Hommes ('Men"s Abbey'), is a former monastery dedicated to Saint Stephen (Saint Étienne). It is considered, along with the neighbouring Abbaye aux Dames ('Ladies" Abbey'), to be one of the most notable Romanesque buildings in Normandy. Like all the major abbeys in Normandy, it was Benedictine.
Lanfranc, before being an Archbishop of Canterbury, was abbot of Saint-Etienne. Built in Caen stone during the 11th century, the two semi-completed churches stood for many decades in competition. An important feature added to both churches in about 1120 was the ribbed vault, used for the first time in France. The two abbey churches are considered forerunners of the Gothic architecture. The original Romanesque apse was replaced in 1166 by an early Gothic chevet, complete with rosette windows and flying buttresses. Nine towers and spires were added in the 13th century. The interior vaulting shows a similar progression, beginning with early sexpartite vaulting (using circular ribs) in the nave and progressing to quadipartite vaults (using pointed ribs) in the sanctuary.
The two monasteries were finally donated by William the Conqueror and his wife, Matilda of Flanders, as penalty for their marriage against the Pope"s ruling. William was buried here; Matilda was buried in the Abbaye aux Dames. Unfortunately William"s original tombstone of black marble, the same kind as Matilda"s in the Abbaye aux Dames, was destroyed by the Calvinist iconoclasts in the 16th century and his bones scattered.
As a consequence of the Wars of Religion, the high lantern tower in the middle of the church collapsed and was never rebuilt. The Benedictine abbey was suppressed during the French Revolution and the abbey church became a parish church. From 1804 to 1961, the abbey buildings accommodated a prestigious high school, the Lycée Malherbe. During the Normandy Landings in 1944, inhabitants of Caen found refuge in the church; on the rooftop there was a red cross, made with blood on a sheet, to show that it was a hospital (to avoid bombings).