Innerjuvalt was built about 2 km south-east of the older Hochjuvalt Castle by the Freiherr von Juvalt. It was built in two parts on a narrow rocky outcropping above the entrance to the Domleschg Valley. The upper castle was first built around 1250 and was expanded around 1273. In 1342 two of the von Juvalt family, Albrecht and Bertram, appeared in a probate court to settle their inheritance, with Bertram giving up his rights to Innerjuvalt. In 1372 Elgof and Friedrich von Juvalt divided the inheritance again, with Eglof receiving the castle, its meadows, a mill and vineyards. In 1382 Egolf's wife Ursula was living in the castle. In 1423 Rudolf von Juvalt was ordered to continually live in the castle, but by 1440 they had moved to the more accessible lower castle. However, they added a third story to the tower in the late 15th century.
In 1462 Barbara von Juvalt sold the castle to her brother in law Pedrutt von Wannis. A few decades later it was abandoned and by 1570 was described as a ruin.
The upper castle was built around 1250 as a two story palas, probably to house workers as they completed the castle. A two story main tower and an attached residential wing were added to the north-east of the palas. A third story was added to the tower in the late 15th century. A wall was built on lower western side of the outcropping, with the remainder protected by steep cliffs. A bakery and a cistern were built along this wall. Beginning in 1979 the communities of Domleschg and the Burgenvereine Graubünden added a new roof and repaired and rebuilt the castle. The ruins were excavated in 1980, 1982 and 1990. Today the castle grounds are open for visitors and the tower can be rented by small groups.
The lower castle was built at the foot of the cliff. It consisted of a ring wall with a gatehouse on the southern side. A large palas or residential building was built along the wall. The northern side of the courtyard was terraced for farming. Today very little of the lower castle remains.References:
The famous Italian Medici family have given two queens to France: Catherine, the spouse of Henry II, and Marie, widow of Henry IV, who built the current Luxembourg palace. Maria di Medici had never been happy at the Louvre, still semi-medieval, where the fickle king, did not hesitate to receive his mistresses. The death of Henry IV, assassinated in 1610, left the way open for Marie's project. When she became regent, she was able to give special attention to the construction of an imposing modern residence that would be reminiscent of the Palazzo Pitti and the Boboli Gardens in Florence, where she grew up. The development of the 25-hectare park, which was to serve as a jewel-case for the palace, began immediately.
The architect, Salomon de Brosse, began the work in 1615. Only 16 years later was the palace was completed. Palace of Luxembourg affords a transition between the Renaissance and the Classical period.
In 1750, the Director of the King's Buildings installed in the wing the first public art-gallery in France, in which French and foreign canvases of the royal collections are shown. The Count of Provence and future Louis XVIII, who was living in Petit Luxembourg, had this gallery closed in 1780: leaving to emigrate, he fled from the palace in June 1791.
During the French Revolution the palace was first abandoned and then moved as a national prison. After that it was the seat of the French Directory, and in 1799, the home of the Sénat conservateur and the first residence of Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul of the French Republic. The old apartments of Maria di Medici were altered. The floor, which the 80 senators only occupied in 1804, was built in the middle of the present Conference Hall.
Beginning in 1835 the architect Alphonse de Gisors added a new garden wing parallel to the old corps de logis, replicating the look of the original 17th-century facade so precisely that it is difficult to distinguish at first glance the old from the new. The new senate chamber was located in what would have been the courtyard area in-between.
The new wing included a library (bibliothèque) with a cycle of paintings (1845–1847) by Eugène Delacroix. In the 1850s, at the request of Emperor Napoleon III, Gisors created the highly decorated Salle des Conférences, which influenced the nature of subsequent official interiors of the Second Empire, including those of the Palais Garnier.
During the German occupation of Paris (1940–1944), Hermann Göring took over the palace as the headquarters of the Luftwaffe in France, taking for himself a sumptuous suite of rooms to accommodate his visits to the French capital. Since 1958 the Luxembourg palace has been the seat of the French Senate of the Fifth Republic.