Neuburg Castle was first built during the late 13th century or early 14th, most likely for the Baron Tumb von Neuburg from Vorarlberg. It is unclear whether there was an earlier castle or why the Tumb von Neuburg family acquired land in Graubünden. It was first mentioned in 1345 as Nüwburg. In 1360 they had to give the castle to Heinz and Martin Buwix as collateral for a loan, but by 1385 they were back in possession of the castle. In 1396 Frik Tumb quarreled with Ulrich Brun von Rhäzüns, which led to a feud between the two families and Neuburg Castle being besieged. In 1400 Johann von Neuburg became a vassal to the Bishop of Chur to protect his claim to the castle.
About 1450 it came under the control of Rudolf von Rappenstein or von Mötteli. In 1496 it was sold to the Bishop of Chur, who appointed a bailiff to administer the estates. In the following years, the castle was expanded, but during the 16th century it was abandoned and fell into ruin. Then, in 1577 the municipality bought the castle and associated barony. In the 16th Century, the site was abandoned and began to collapse.
The castle site includes the still visible rectangular keep, which is one of the largest in Raetia. The keep was four stories tall and was about 12 by 29 meters in size. The original high entrance was located on the west, about 2 m above ground level. The tower was divided into three parts by large interior walls. North and west of the keep, the foundations and portions of the curtain wall and gatehouse are still visible. In the northern courtyard, there is a large round cistern. The castle was repeatedly expanded. The original structure included arcades, detached kitchens and sinks.
The walls were about 1.5 m thick at the base, though they thinned out as they rose. On the mountain side of the castle site, a 2 m high gate led to the middle section of the castle.References:
The Cloth Hall in Kraków dates to the Renaissance and is one of the city's most recognizable icons. It is the central feature of the main market square in the Kraków Old Town (listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1978).
The hall was once a major centre of international trade. Traveling merchants met there to discuss business and to barter. During its golden age in the 15th century, the hall was the source of a variety of exotic imports from the east – spices, silk, leather and wax – while Kraków itself exported textiles, lead, and salt from the Wieliczka Salt Mine.
Kraków was Poland's capital city and was among the largest cities in Europe already from before the time of the Renaissance. However, its decline started with the move of the capital to Warsaw in the very end of the 16th century. The city's decline was hastened by wars and politics leading to the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century. By the time of the architectural restoration proposed for the cloth hall in 1870 under Austrian rule, much of the historic city center was decrepit. A change in political and economic fortunes for the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria ushered in a revival due to newly established Legislative Assembly or Sejm of the Land. The successful renovation of the Cloth Hall, based on design by Tomasz Pryliński and supervised by Mayor Mikołaj Zyblikiewicz, Sejm Marshal, was one of the most notable achievements of this period.
The hall has hosted many distinguished guests over the centuries and is still used to entertain monarchs and dignitaries, such as Charles, Prince of Wales and Emperor Akihito of Japan, who was welcomed here in 2002. In the past, balls were held here, most notably after Prince Józef Poniatowski had briefly liberated the city from the Austrians in 1809. Aside from its history and cultural value, the hall still is still used as a center of commerce.
On the upper floor of the hall is the Sukiennice Museum division of the National Museum, Kraków. It holds the largest permanent exhibit of the 19th-century Polish painting and sculpture, in four grand exhibition halls arranged by historical period and the theme extending into an entire artistic epoch. The museum was upgraded in 2010 with new technical equipment, storerooms, service spaces as well as improved thematic layout for the display.
The Gallery of 19th-Century Polish Art was a major cultural venue from the moment it opened on October 7, 1879. It features late Baroque, Rococo, and Classicist 18th-century portraits and battle scenes by Polish and foreign pre-Romantics.