Ameglia Castle was mentioned from the 10th century among the castles belonging to the Bishopof Luni. Ameglia was an attractive site, as it was equipped with a court, a fish market and aport and was then supposed to have a great economic grouth. The castle was also mentioned in another document of 1174, in which it is written that the inhabitants of Pietracoperta – a territory destroyed by the Genoese - had lived in Ameglia and equipped it with a defensive tower during that year.
The castle became then the residence of the Bishop of Luni until the 14th century, when it was owned by Castruccio Castracani. In 1470 the village and the fortress were sold for 6.000 gold ducati to the Banco di San Giorgio from the Viscounts. From that moment on, the destiny of this area was linked to Genoa.
The defensive function of the castle ended in the 19th century, when it became the seat of the Municipality of Ameglia.
The construction period is uncertain, but it could date back to the Late Middle Ages due to its position close to the ridge between the moth of the Marinasco River and the monastery of Santa Croce in Punta Corvo. It was used as path to reach the hill of Montemarcello. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the village was built around the castle.
The structure of the castle is located on top of a hill overlooking the valley and stands in the middle of the village. The fortress is composed by a 2 floors rectangular building – where there is evidence of several reconstructions – by a circular tower and bythe trapezoidal defensive walls. Starting from the core of the castle, along the centuries new houses were built around the fortress. This phenomenon originated the fortified village, whose structure consists in concentric circles.References:
German crusaders known as the Livonian Brothers of the Sword began construction of the Cēsis castle (Wenden) near the hill fort in 1209. When the castle was enlarged and fortified, it served as the residence for the Order's Master from 1237 till 1561, with periodic interruptions. Its ruins are some of the most majestic castle ruins in the Baltic states. Once the most important castle of the Livonian Order, it was the official residence for the masters of the order.
In 1577, during the Livonian War, the garrison destroyed the castle to prevent it from falling into the control of Ivan the Terrible, who was decisively defeated in the Battle of Wenden (1578).
In 1598 it was incorporated into the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Wenden Voivodship was created here. In 1620 Wenden was conquered by Sweden. It was rebuilt afterwards, but was destroyed again in 1703 during the Great Northern War by the Russian army and left in a ruined state. Already from the end of the 16th century, the premises of the Order's castle were adjusted to the requirements of the Cēsis Castle estate. When in 1777 the Cēsis Castle estate was obtained by Count Carl Sievers, he had his new residence house built on the site of the eastern block of the castle, joining its end wall with the fortification tower.
Since 1949, the Cēsis History Museum has been located in this New Castle of the Cēsis Castle estate. The front yard of the New Castle is enclosed by a granary and a stable-coach house, which now houses the Exhibition Hall of the Museum. Beside the granary there is the oldest brewery in Latvia, Cēsu alus darītava, which was built in 1878 during the later Count Sievers' time, but its origins date back to the period of the Livonian Order. Further on, the Cēsis Castle park is situated, which was laid out in 1812. The park has the romantic characteristic of that time, with its winding footpaths, exotic plants, and the waters of the pond reflecting the castle's ruins. Nowadays also one of the towers is open for tourists.