The castle of Suvero was built in the 12th century by the Malaspinadi Villafranca on a hill overlooking the village. During the 15th century it was assigned to the Campofregoso, after Genoa had conquered the territories of the Malaspina. At the behest of King Louis XII, the Genoese returned it to the original owners. After the death of Spinetta Malaspina, lord of Suvero, it became an independent fief assigned to Rinaldo Malaspina, who probably built the castle.
There were then several lords of the Malaspina family: some of them shined for their governmental talent, while others provoked dissatisfaction among the subjects. In 1600 the villagers of Suvero decided then to submit to Spain and to Tuscany, but in the end they always returned under the rule of the Malaspina. After the beginning of the Renaissance the castle lost its defensive function and became definitively a residence. For over 200 years it was the residence of the lords of Suvero and was rarely involved in battles.
The current structure, which probably stands on a pre-existing medieval building, is trapezoidal with three fortified corners and impressive fortified towers. On the western side there is a circular fortified tower. In the 19th century the eastern fortified tower collapsed, and in 1921 the southern one was destroyed by the earthquake. Both have been restored.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.