Hamina fortress is a very rare circle fort, representing the Renaissance ideal city embodied by Palmanova city in Italy. It was built after Great Northern War to the ruins of Vehkalahti town.
After Treaty of Nystadt border between Sweden and Russia was moved to Kymeenlakso area in Finland. The construction of the fortress started began by Swedish general Axel von Löwen in 1720s. Protected by six bastions of the fortress the garrison was responsible for defending the city and the coastal road. When next war began in 1741 Hamina fortress was still uncomplete. It was conquered by Russian forces and in new peace treaty fortress left to the Russia side of border.
Russians continued fortress construction in the command of general Aleksander Suvorov. It was part of the South-Eastern Finland fortification system, which was implemented to defence St. Petersburg against western enemies. In the beginning of the 19th century Hamina fortress was outdated and it was reconstructed by the Dutch general Jan Pieter van Suchtelen. When Russia conquered Finland in the Finnish war in 1808-1809 fortress lost its military status. It was abandoded in the 1830s and tsar Nikolai I gave it as the property of Hamina city. During the Crimean war in 1853-1856 fortress reinforced again to fight against the British and French fleet.
Restoration was started in 1957. Much of the fortress remains to this day, and it is used as a venue for different events. Parts of the fortress are still in military use, as the Finnish Reserve Officer School is located in the fortress.
Narikala is an ancient fortress overlooking Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, and the Kura River. The fortress consists of two walled sections on a steep hill between the sulphur baths and the botanical gardens of Tbilisi. On the lower court there is the recently restored St Nicholas church. Newly built in 1996–1997, it replaces the original 13th-century church that was destroyed in a fire. The new church is of 'prescribed cross' type, having doors on three sides. The internal part of the church is decorated with the frescos showing scenes both from the Bible and history of Georgia.
The fortress was established in the 4th century and it was a Persian citadel. It was considerably expanded by the Umayyads in the 7th century and later, by king David the Builder (1089–1125). Most of extant fortifications date from the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1827, parts of the fortress were damaged by an earthquake and demolished.