Hamina fortress is a very rare circle fort, representing the Renaissance ideal city embodied by Palmanova city in Italy. It was built after Great Northern War to the ruins of Vehkalahti town.
After Treaty of Nystadt border between Sweden and Russia was moved to Kymeenlakso area in Finland. The construction of the fortress started began by Swedish general Axel von Löwen in 1720s. Protected by six bastions of the fortress the garrison was responsible for defending the city and the coastal road. When next war began in 1741 Hamina fortress was still uncomplete. It was conquered by Russian forces and in new peace treaty fortress left to the Russia side of border.
Russians continued fortress construction in the command of general Aleksander Suvorov. It was part of the South-Eastern Finland fortification system, which was implemented to defence St. Petersburg against western enemies. In the beginning of the 19th century Hamina fortress was outdated and it was reconstructed by the Dutch general Jan Pieter van Suchtelen. When Russia conquered Finland in the Finnish war in 1808-1809 fortress lost its military status. It was abandoded in the 1830s and tsar Nikolai I gave it as the property of Hamina city. During the Crimean war in 1853-1856 fortress reinforced again to fight against the British and French fleet.
Restoration was started in 1957. Much of the fortress remains to this day, and it is used as a venue for different events. Parts of the fortress are still in military use, as the Finnish Reserve Officer School is located in the fortress.
Montparnasse Cemetery was created from three farms in 1824. Cemeteries had been banned from Paris since the closure, owing to health concerns, of the Cimetière des Innocents in 1786. Several new cemeteries outside the precincts of the capital replaced all the internal Parisian ones in the early 19th century: Montmartre Cemetery in the north, Père Lachaise Cemetery in the east, and Montparnasse Cemetery in the south. At the heart of the city, and today sitting in the shadow of the Eiffel Tower, is Passy Cemetery.
Montparnasse cemetery is the burial place of many of France's intellectual and artistic elite as well as publishers and others who promoted the works of authors and artists. There are also many graves of foreigners who have made France their home, as well as monuments to police and firefighters killed in the line of duty in the city of Paris.
The cemetery is divided by Rue Émile Richard. The small section is usually referred to as the small cemetery (petit cimetière) and the large section as the big cemetery (grand cimetière).
Although Baudelaire is buried in this cemetery (division 6), there is also a cenotaph to him (between division 26 and 27). Because of the many notable people buried there, it is a highly popular tourist attraction.