Holy Cross Abbey was an important Augustinian monastery located in Skåne's old capital, Dalby. It’s history began as a Viking Age royal manor. The buildings along with a granite chapel were donated for the establishment of a Benedictine monastery during the reign of King Sweyn II of Denmark, who gifted the old manor on which the abbey was to be built and two and a half other rented properties to fund its construction. The old manor buildings were converted into the ranges of the monastery. In 1066 Bishop Henrik of Lund died and Bishop Egino of Dalby Diocese took his place. Plans had been made to build a cathedral complex at Dalby, but the pope instead combined the dioceses of Dalby and Lund. In addition, Bishop Egino became the first Archbishop of Lund, after Pope Alexander II decided that Denmark and the rest of Scandinavia should from that time forward be an independent archdiocese of the Catholic Church. King Sweyn II's son, King Harald III of Denmark, was buried in the church at Dalby in 1080, indicating its important status at the end of the Viking Era.
A new expanded church was built of granite in the Romanesque style as a basilica dedicated to St Peter and given over to Augustinian canons. The building was further extended in the early 13th century with the addition of double towers, an extended west facade and two smaller towers flanked the new apse added onto the choir. In the 14th century the abbey had become wealthy enough to rebuild itself, so the original Viking Age buildings were demolished and new larger brick buildings took their place. The church was nearly as large as Lund Cathedral when it was complete and was arranged in the typical plan for monasteries of the day. Three ranges were built adjacent to the church forming a four-sided enclosure to separate the canons from the world. At its height, Dalby owned 450 farms and other properties throughout Skåne.
The abbey was sacked by the Swedish King Charles Knutsson in 1450 and never fully recovered its status. As a result the buildings were maintained, but not extended. In the 1530s Denmark fought over the question of religion. Lutherans urged Danes to abandon their Catholic beliefs, customs, and institutions in favor of those of the Lutheran movement. Dalby lost its support and rapidly declined. In 1536 Denmark became a Lutheran kingdom. All religious houses and their properties reverted to the crown. Dalby was secularized and given to the nobleman, Anders Bille and then other owners.
Dalby suffered during the wars between Sweden and Denmark. It became the property of the Swedish Crown in 1678 when Skåne became part of Sweden and in 1686 the eastern half of the church and towers were demolished. The buildings became so dilapidated by the 1740s that, while some parts were restored, other were demolished. In 1755 the entire eastern end of the church collapsed, destroying the famous marble altar. The partially ruined church was restored and a late Gothic brick tower added in 1758. The remaining range called "Boningshus" was repaired. It remains Sweden's oldest inhabited dwelling. In 1809 Dalby reverted to the Swedish Crown and it was restored again and modernized into the complex that can be seen today. Several additional buildings were constructed in the same style as the surviving buildings to replicate the feel of the ancient abbey.
The church is the oldest existing church building in Sweden, and the sandstone baptismal font in Dalby Church is believed to be one of the oldest in Scandinavia still in use.References:
The Broch of Gurness is an Iron Age broch village. Settlement here began sometime between 500 and 200 BC. At the centre of the settlement is a stone tower or broch, which once probably reached a height of around 10 metres. Its interior is divided into sections by upright slabs. The tower features two skins of drystone walls, with stone-floored galleries in between. These are accessed by steps. Stone ledges suggest that there was once an upper storey with a timber floor. The roof would have been thatched, surrounded by a wall walk linked by stairs to the ground floor. The broch features two hearths and a subterranean stone cistern with steps leading down into it. It is thought to have some religious significance, relating to an Iron Age cult of the underground.
The remains of the central tower are up to 3.6 metres high, and the stone walls are up to 4.1 metres thick. The tower was likely inhabited by the principal family or clan of the area but also served as a last resort for the village in case of an attack.
The broch continued to be inhabited while it began to collapse and the original structures were altered. The cistern was filled in and the interior was repartitioned. The ruin visible today reflects this secondary phase of the broch's use.
The site is surrounded by three ditches cut out of the rock with stone ramparts, encircling an area of around 45 metres diameter. The remains of numerous small stone dwellings with small yards and sheds can be found between the inner ditch and the tower. These were built after the tower, but were a part of the settlement's initial conception. A 'main street' connects the outer entrance to the broch. The settlement is the best-preserved of all broch villages.
Pieces of a Roman amphora dating to before 60 AD were found here, lending weight to the record that a 'King of Orkney' submitted to Emperor Claudius at Colchester in 43 AD.
At some point after 100 AD the broch was abandoned and the ditches filled in. It is thought that settlement at the broch continued into the 5th century AD, the period known as Pictish times. By that time the broch was not used anymore and some of its stones were reused to build smaller dwellings on top of the earlier buildings. Until about the 8th century, the site was just a single farmstead.
In the 9th century, a Norse woman was buried at the site in a stone-lined grave with two bronze brooches and a sickle and knife made from iron. Other finds suggest that Norse men were buried here too.