The Toome Hill, rising above Old Town, has always been strategic military position. Tartu's original settlement, Tarbatu, was established here in 600AD, and if you trace the hill's outline on a map, you can still see the shape of fortifications built here in the 17th and 18th centuries.
The western part of the hill is clearly dominated by the ruins of the 13th-century cathedral (Toomkirik) that has been decaying since the Livonian War (1558-1583). The sanctuary, which is still in a quite good condition today, accommodates the University’s history museum. Here you can get a broad overview of academic research and teaching in Tartu.
The old observatory of Tartu was constructed in 1811. It was the most modern one in Europe in the 19th century.References:
Ängsö Castle was first named as "Engsev" in a royal charter by king Canute I of Sweden (r. 1167-1196), in which he stated that he had inherited the property after his father Eric IX of Sweden. Until 1272, it was owned by the Riseberga Abbey, and then taken over by Gregers Birgersson.
From 1475 until 1710, it was owned by the Sparre family. The current castle was built as a fortress by riksråd Bengt Fadersson Sparre in the 1480s. In 1522, Ängsö Castle was taken after a siege by king Gustav Vasa, since its owner, Fadersson's son Knut Bengtsson, sided with Christian II of Denmark. However, in 1538 it was given by the king to Bengtsson's daughter Hillevi Knutsdotter, who was married to Arvid Trolle.
In 1710, the castle was taken over by Carl Piper and Christina Piper. Ängsö Castle was owned by the Piper family from 1710 until 1971, and is now owned by the Westmanna foundation. The castle building itself was made into a museum in 1959 and was made a listed building in 1965. It is currently opened to visitors during the summers.
The castle is a cubical building in four stores made by stone and bricks. The lower parts is preserved from the middle ages. It was redecorated and expanded in the 1630s. The 4th storey as well as the roof is from the expansion of Carl Hårleman from 1740-41. It gained its current appearance in the 1740s.