The Haus am Horn was built for the Weimar Bauhaus's exhibition of July through September 1923. It was designed by Georg Muche, a painter and a teacher at the Bauhaus. Other Bauhaus instructors, such as Adolf Meyer and Walter Gropius, assisted with the technical aspects of the house's design. The house's construction was financed by Sommerfeld, a Berlin lumber merchant, who had been a client of Gropius years before. The house was built away from the main section of the Bauhaus, on land that was being used as a vegetable garden for the school. The site is currently near the Park an der Ilm in Weimar, on a residential street.
It was a simple cubic design, utilizing steel and concrete in its construction. At the center of the house was a clerestory-lit living room, twenty-feet square, with specialized rooms surrounding it. Each room had specially-designed furnishings and hardware designed by and created in the Bauhaus workshops. László Moholy-Nagy, for instance, designed the lights and were made in the metal workshop; Marcel Breuer, a student at the time, designed the furniture, including the built-in cabinetry.
Owing to the Bauhaus's financial difficulties, the Haus am Horn was sold to a private individual in 1924. In 1996, it entered onto the monument preservation list of UNESCO along with other important Bauhaus sites in both Weimar and Dessau. In 1998-1999, the structure was evaluated for restoration by the Bauhaus University Circle of Friends.
On the occasion of the Bauhaus‘s 80th anniversary, the house was completely restored by the Bauhaus University Circle of Friends with support from the Sparkasse Finance Group and several public donors.References:
The Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood is one of the main sights of St. Petersburg. The church was built on the site where Tsar Alexander II was assassinated and was dedicated in his memory. Construction began in 1883 under Alexander III, as a memorial to his father, Alexander II. Work progressed slowly and was finally completed during the reign of Nicholas II in 1907. Funding was provided by the Imperial family with the support of many private donors.
Architecturally, the Cathedral differs from St. Petersburg's other structures. The city's architecture is predominantly Baroque and Neoclassical, but the Savior on Blood harks back to medieval Russian architecture in the spirit of romantic nationalism. It intentionally resembles the 17th-century Yaroslavl churches and the celebrated St. Basil's Cathedral in Moscow.
The Church contains over 7500 square metres of mosaics — according to its restorers, more than any other church in the world. The interior was designed by some of the most celebrated Russian artists of the day — including Viktor Vasnetsov, Mikhail Nesterov and Mikhail Vrubel — but the church's chief architect, Alfred Alexandrovich Parland, was relatively little-known (born in St. Petersburg in 1842 in a Baltic-German Lutheran family). Perhaps not surprisingly, the Church's construction ran well over budget, having been estimated at 3.6 million roubles but ending up costing over 4.6 million. The walls and ceilings inside the Church are completely covered in intricately detailed mosaics — the main pictures being biblical scenes or figures — but with very fine patterned borders setting off each picture.
In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution, the church was ransacked and looted, badly damaging its interior. The Soviet government closed the church in the early 1930s. During the Second World War when many people were starving due to the Siege of Leningrad by Nazi German military forces, the church was used as a temporary morgue for those who died in combat and from starvation and illness. The church suffered significant damage. After the war, it was used as a warehouse for vegetables, leading to the sardonic name of Saviour on Potatoes.
In July 1970, management of the Church passed to Saint Isaac's Cathedral (then used as a highly profitable museum) and proceeds from the Cathedral were funneled back into restoring the Church. It was reopened in August 1997, after 27 years of restoration, but has not been reconsecrated and does not function as a full-time place of worship; it is a Museum of Mosaics. Even before the Revolution it never functioned as a public place of worship; having been dedicated exclusively to the memory of the assassinated tsar, the only services were panikhidas (memorial services). The Church is now one of the main tourist attractions in St. Petersburg.