The Goethe House is the main house where poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe lived in Weimar, though he did live in several others in the town. Goethe House is one of sites in a UNESCO World Heritage Site consisting of multiple structures related to Weimar Classicism.
Johann Wolfgang Goethe lived in the house on Frauenplan for 50 years until his death in 1832, apart from his journeys and a lengthy stay in Italy. He first moved into the Baroque house which built in 1709 on June 1, 1782 as a tenant. In 1792, Duke Carl August of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach purchased the property and gave it to his state minister Goethe, who by then had been ennobled, in 1794. Goethe had the building reconstructed according to his own designs as the only owner. The most significant changes made to the house were the construction of a spacious staircase with three passageways and the corresponding niches for sculptures, and the mounting of stucco friezes. This reconstruction work reflects Goethe’s ideology of classical art.
The part of the house facing the town contains the elegant living, social and collection rooms, while the back of the house with the working areas is looking at the spacious gardens. The front and back of the house are linked by two passages on the upper floor; these bridge the coach house and inner courtyard with the fountain. Goethe lived here not only with his family, but also with several servants and house mates such as his friend and advisor, the artist Johann Heinrich Meyer at the times.
Besides serving as a place to live and work, the great house gave Goethe the opportunity to expand his art and nature collection constantly until it reached the dimensions that are still being preserved today. The 18 accessible rooms show not only original furniture and other belongings of the household, but also personal mementoes and numerous objects from all parts of Goethe’s collection: hand drawings, paintings, sculptures, bronzes, majolica, coins and medallions. The arrangement and display of the collection largely corresponds to their presentation during the last years of the poet’s life. The highlight of the tour is Goethe’s study with its authentic furnishings and the view of the adjoining private library.References:
The Moszna Castle is one of the best known monuments in the western part of Upper Silesia. The history of this building begins in the 17th century, although much older cellars were found in the gardens during excavations carried out at the beginning of the 20th century. Some of the investigators, including H. Barthel, claimed that those cellars could have been remnants of a presumed Templar castle, but their theory has never been proved. After World War II, further excavations discovered a medieval palisade.
The central part of the castle is an old baroque palace which was partially destroyed by fire on the night of April 2, 1896 and was reconstructed in the same year in its original form by Franz Hubert von Tiele-Winckler. The reconstruction works involved an extension of the residence. The eastern Neogothic-styled wing of the building was built by 1900, along with an adjacent orangery. In 1912-1914, the western wing was built in the Neo-Renaissance style. The architectural form of the castle contains a wide variety of styles, thus it can be generally defined as eclectic.
The height of the building, as well as its numerous turrets and spires, give the impression of verticalism. The whole castle has exactly ninety-nine turrets. Inside, it contains 365 rooms. The castle was twice visited by the German Emperor Wilhelm II. His participation in hunting during his stay at the castle was documented in a hand-written chronicle in 1911 as well as in the following year. The castle in Moszna was the residence of a Silesian family Tiele-Winckler who were industrial magnates, from 1866 until the spring of 1945 when they were forced to move to Germany and the castle was occupied by the Red Army. The period of the Soviet control caused significant damage to the castle's internal fittings in comparison to the minor damage caused by WWII.
After World War II the castle did not have a permanent owner and was the home of various institutions until 1972 when it became a convalescent home. Later it became a Public Health Care Centre for Therapies of Neuroses. Nowadays it can be visited by tourists since the health institution has moved to another building in the neighbourhood. The castle also has a chapel which is used as a concert hall. Since 1998 the castle housed a gallery in which works of various artists are presented at regular exhibitions.
Apart from the castle itself, the entire complex includes a park which has no precise boundaries and includes nearby fields, meadows and a forest. Only the main axis of the park can be characterised as geometrical. Starting from the gate, it leads along the oak and then horse-chestnut avenues, towards the castle. Further on, the park passes into an avenue of lime trees with symmetrical canals running along both sides of the path, lined with a few varieties of rhododendrons. The axis of the park terminates at the base of a former monument of Hubert von Tiele-Winckler. On the eastern side of the avenue there is a pond with an islet referred to by the owners as Easter Island. The islet is planted with needle-leaved shrubs and can be reached by a Chinese-styled bridge. The garden, as part of the whole park complex was restored slightly earlier than the castle itself. Preserved documents of 1868 state that the improvement in the garden's aesthetic quality was undertaken by Hubert von Tiele-Winckler.