Old Jewish Cemetery

Prague, Czech Republic

Old Jewish Cemetery is the largest Jewish cemetery in Europe and one of the most important Jewish historical monuments in Prague. It served its purpose from the first half of 15th century till 1786. Renowned personalities of the local Jewish community were buried here; among them rabbi Jehuda Liva ben Becalel – Maharal (ca. 1526–1609), businessman Mordecai Maisel (1528–1601), historian David Gans (ca. 1541–1613) and rabbi David Oppenheim (1664–1736).

The Old Jewish Cemetery is not the first Jewish cemetery in Prague – its predecessor was so-called 'Jewish Garden“ located in the area of present New Town of Prague. This cemetery was closed by order of King Wladislav II Jagello in 1478 because of complaints of Prague citizens. Later it disappeared under the streets of New Town. We know that the history of the Old Cemetery started before that, but the exact date when it was founded is unknown. The only clue is the oldest gravestone in the cemetery from 1439 which belongs to rabbi and poet Avigdor Kara.

Starting at the middle of the 15th century, the gravestones record is a continual time line of burials. The final gravestone is dated 1787; three years earlier, the enlightened sovereign Emperor Josef II had banned burials inside the city walls for hygienic reasons. Later Prague Jews used a cemetery in Žižkov, founded in the 17th century because of plague epidemic.

During the more than three centuries in which it was in active use, the cemetery continually struggled with the lack of space. Piety and respect for the deceased ancestors does not allow the Jews to abolish old graves. Only occasionally the Jewish Community was allowed to purchase grounds to expand the cemetery and so many times it had to gain space in other ways; if necessary, a new layer of soil was heaped up on the available area. For this reason, there are places where as many as twelve layers now exist. Thanks to this solution the older graves themselves remained intact. However, as new levels were added it was necessary either to lay over the gravestones associated with the older (and lower) graves to protect them, or else to elevate the stones to the new, higher surface. This explains the dense forest of gravestones that one sees today; many of them commemorate an individual who is buried several layers further down. This also explains why the surface of the cemetery is raised several meters higher than the surrounding streets; retaining walls are necessary to hold the soil and the graves in place.

There are two kinds of Jewish burial monuments – the older is a slab of wood or stone, basically rectangular, but with various endings at the top. Tumba (in Hebrew ohel – tent) appears later, in baroque times. It is generally more representative than the first mentioned kind and resembles a little house. Such tumbas commemorate on the cemetery for example Maharal or Mordecai Maisel. Tumbas do not contain the remains; they are buried underneath in ground.

The oldest gravestones on Old Jewish cemetery are plain, yet very soon the number of ornaments (pilasters, volutes, false portals, etc.) began to increase. Most decorated gravestones come from 17th century. However, on every gravestone there are Hebrew letters that inform about the name of the deceased person and the date of his or her death or burial. From 16th century the gravestones characterize the deceased also through various symbols, hinting at the life, character, name or profession of the people.

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Details

Founded: 15th century
Category: Cemeteries, mausoleums and burial places in Czech Republic

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4.1/5 (based on Google user reviews)

User Reviews

Dootybootyfrooty (2 years ago)
It's a rip-off, cant see the cemetery only. It's near 15$ each to see a cemetery and other stuff, yeah right. Way better things to do
Rudi Wingert (2 years ago)
Visit the historic tombstones and experience the plight of the Jewish people of Prague. Walk around thousands of tombs and understand the customs of Jewish burials.
Amy Watson Sanchez Cuoq (2 years ago)
Wonderfully preserved. Try to get a guide, they can tell you the history and meanings behind much of the symbolism on the headstones.
Loudovikos IV (2 years ago)
Beautiful cemetery with old grave stones and surrounding buildings in a park setup. We had the pack that gives you access to it as well as several museum and synagogues of the Jewish quarter and we really enjoyed it!
Christian Schuh (3 years ago)
Beautiful, park like cemetery with old graves, beautiful statues, mausoleums right in the middle of the city. You won't even notice that a busy city life is going on right outside the walls of the cemetery. The cemetery is easy to reach by subway (red line), bus and tram. All of these stop at the flora shopping center and this is only a 2 minute walk away.
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