It is not clear when and by whom the Roztoky fortress was found. Appearance of the fortress was documented by the archaeological research from the period of the 2nd half of the 13th century, when the place around the fortress consisted of a huge stone residential tower, surrounded by a high city wall, a moat and a rampart. The floor plan of the residential tower is marked in the stone pavement of the courtyard. In written sources the fortress is explicitly presented from the year 1416, in a dispute over the land between the owner of the manor of that time and the monastery of Benedicts inBřevnov (now a part of Prague).
At the end of the 14th century the Roztoky manor got into ownership of brothers Eberhard and Reinhard of Mühlhausen (town between Kassel and Erfurt in Germany), who belonged to a wealthy patrician family. The importance of the family in thecontext of contemporary society was not insignificant because Eberhard was a treasurer of the emperor Charles IV. After his death (1381) Roztoky was passed to his younger brother Reinhard, who began an exacting reconstruction of the early gothic fortress in a comfortable residential seat. He demolished the residential tower, and built a sumptuous palace on the south east side of the fortress. On the first floor of the palace he placed a bay chapel decorated with wallpaintings, preserved almost in its original look. The paintings represent a unique piece of art, comparable with manorial range of paintings. Their design is closed to monumental decorations of the significant church of St. Clement in nearby Levý Hradec. The same artists from the same workshop probably worked on the both works of art.
In 1453, Lords of Donín, who realized the completion of circular courtyard buildings in 1476, attained Roztoky. The storied buildings were accessible from courtyard by several external staircases.
Boryněs of Lhota were major renaissance builders, who owned Roztoky from the year 1565 till 1623. The first holder of Roztoky, knight David Boryně of Lhota, was a provincial officer, a successful farmer and a landlord, but also a very harsh master. He created good financial precondition to further building development. But in the year 1590 when mob from surroundings of Prague and his own vassals plundered the castle, the knight was tortured for his cruel behaviour and died a year later, probably due to its consequences. More extensive construction works of the fort apparently took place in three stages up to the late 16th century – the ground floor was gradually vaulted and the 2nd floor wasbuilt including roofing with painted beamed ceilings.
David Boryně was seized due to the participation in uprising of Czech estates against the emperor Matyáš. Because of the dire financial situation Roztoky castle and the whole manor was forcibly sold to Karel of Liechtenstein in the year 1623.
In 1623 Charles I. Liechtenstein, who became the most famous member of this family in the Czech lands, purchased the Roztoky manor. In 1599 he converted to catholic religion and in the following years gradually acquired a number of high court offices. From the year 1621 he held the position of the royal governor in Bohemia and became the second most important man in the kingdom after the Czech king, respectively the emperor of Habsburgs. Thanks to his position he could significantly expand his ancestral property. At the beginning of the thirty years ' war he bought, or receivedfrom the emperor, number of dominions confiscated from Protestant nobles. He also received large funds by participating in the so-called coin consortium, which minted debased coins. Depreciation of the currency led to state bankruptcy in the year 1623. In the central Bohemia, except Roztoky, he also bought e.g. extensive estate of Kostelec nad Černými lesy, whose official administration was of liechtensteins` possession at the time superior of the Roztocky manor. From the year 1623 the Roztoky castle was no longer a manor but it became only a seat of aristocratic administration of the estate and was inhabited by officials.
Today Roztoky castle is museum.References:
Steinvikholm Castle is an island fortress built between 1525 to 1532 by Norway's last Catholic archbishop, Olav Engelbrektsson. Steinvikholm castle became the most powerful fortification by the time it was built, and it is the largest construction raised in the Norwegian Middle Ages.
The castle occupies about half of the land on the rocky island. The absence of a spring meant that fresh water had to be brought from the mainland. A wooden bridge served as the only way to the island other than boat. Although the castle design was common across Europe in 1525, its medieval design was becoming obsolete because of the improved siege firepower offered by gunpowder and cannons.
The castle was constructed after Olav Engelbrektsson returned from a meeting with the Pope in Rome, presumably in anticipation of impending military-religious conflict. As Archbishop Engelbrektsson's resistance to the encroachment of Danish rule escalated, first with Frederick I of Denmark and his successor Christian III of Denmark, Steinvikholm Castle and Nidarholm Abbey became the Catholic Church's military strongholds in Norway. In April 1537, the Danish-Norwegian Reformation succeeded in driving the archbishop from the castle into exile in Lier in the Netherlands (now in Belgium), where he died on 7 February 1538. At the castle the archbishop left behind St. Olav's shrine and other treasures from Nidaros Cathedral (Trondheim). The original coffin containing St. Olav's body remained at Steinvikholm until it was returned to Nidaros Cathedral in 1564. Since 1568 St. Olav's grave in Nidaros has been unknown.
From the 17th to 19th century, the island was used as a quarry and some of its masonry was sold and removed from the site. This activity was condoned by the Danish-Norwegian authorities as a way of eliminating a monument to the opposition of the Danish–Norwegian Union.
Steinvikholm fort is owned and operated today by The society for the Preservation of Norwegian Ancient Monuments. The island has been the site of the midnight opera which details the life and struggles of the archbishop. The opera is held in August annually. The opera is organized by Steinvikholm Musikkteater since the beginning in 1993.