Due to its excellent strategic location, Socerb Castle was already an important stronghold in Illyrian times, while in the Middle Ages, it became a mighty and well-fortified castle controlling the Trieste hinterlands and the commercial routes between Carniola and the coast. The castle has an exceptionally rich and turbulent history that can be traced from the Early Middle Ages to 1780 when it was struck by lightning, rendering it uninhabitable. Its important strategic position made it a cause of fights between the Venetians, Trieste and the Habsburg Monarchy. It was owned by the Venetians from 1463 to 1511 when it was an important stronghold serving as defence against the Turks and Imperial Austria in the Austro-Venetian wars from the early 16th century.
In the early 17th century, during the Uskok War (1615-1617), the Castle was owned by Benvenuto Petazzi, a nobleman from Trieste. The Counts of Petazzi kept their sway over Socerb until 1688, when they returned it to the Archducal Chamber in Graz and moved to Žavlje. In the first half of the 18th century, the Socerb Seigniory came under the Marquises de Priè and was bought in 1768 by the Counts Montecuccoli from Modena who kept it even after releasing the peasants in 1848.
The results of a fire caused by lightning in 1780 caused the castle to slowly start deteriorating in the 19th century. The castle ruins and the nearby cave were described by Count Giroloamo Agapito in 1823 and painted by August Tischbein in 1842. The dilapidated castle was bought in 1907 by Demetrio Economo, a Trieste Baron, who refurbished it in 1923-1924 concentrating mainly on restoring the surrounding walls whilst other remains were removed.
During the national liberation war, the castle’s excellent strategic position made it important for both the partisans, who used it as the seat of the VOS (Security-Intelligence Service), and the people’s court, as well as for German units who occupied it in autumn of 1944, making it a fortified stronghold. The castle was refurbished after the war and today serves as a popular excursion destination with its natural and cultural sights offering food and services to tourists.References:
The Arch of Constantine is situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. It was erected by the Roman Senate to commemorate Constantine I's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312. Dedicated in 315, it is the largest Roman triumphal arch. The arch spans the Via triumphalis, the way taken by the emperors when they entered the city in triumph.
Though dedicated to Constantine, much of the decorative material incorporated earlier work from the time of the emperors Trajan (98-117), Hadrian (117-138) and Marcus Aurelius (161-180), and is thus a collage. The last of the existing triumphal arches in Rome, it is also the only one to make extensive use of spolia, reusing several major reliefs from 2nd century imperial monuments, which give a striking and famous stylistic contrast to the sculpture newly created for the arch.
The arch is 21 m high, 25.9 m wide and 7.4 m deep. Above the archways is placed the attic, composed of brickwork reveted (faced) with marble. A staircase within the arch is entered from a door at some height from the ground, on the west side, facing the Palatine Hill. The general design with a main part structured by detached columns and an attic with the main inscription above is modelled after the example of the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Roman Forum.