Fréjus cathedral, dedicated to Saint Leontius of Fréjus, has been the seat of the Bishop of Fréjus since the 5th century. It is located close to what appears to have been the Roman forum of Fréjus. Elements of Roman buildings, such as columns and walls, were incorporated into its structure.
Beginning in late Roman times, the town suffered a series of invasions and was pillaged by Goths, Burgundians, Franks, Lombards and Saracens. A plague carried away much of the population in the 6th century. In the 10th century Saracen pirates ravaged the coast.
The expulsion of the Saracens in 972 brought a period of relative peace. In the 12th century Fréjus was governed jointly by the Viscount of Fréjus, who had a castle near the port, and by the bishop, who lived beside the cathedral. The medieval town of Fréjus grew up around the cathedral.
The church is part of a complex of a larger fortified complex of medieval religious buildings dating from between the 5th and 13th centuries, comprising a parish church and a cathedral under one roof; a baptistery. There is also a bishop's residence, canonry and cloister.
The baptistery of the cathedral is a fine example of Merovingian architecture. It was built in the 5th century but hidden during later reconstruction, and was rediscovered in 1925. It is considered the oldest Christian structure in Provence, and one of the oldest in France.
The cathedral contains two naves, one of which belonged to the bishop, and the other to the local parish, side by side under the same roof, separated by arches. It appears that the naves were probably built at different times. The church of St. Étienne was probably begun in the 11th century, and enlarged in the 12th century, and became the parish church of the city. It consisted of a long nave under a barrel vault ceiling, divided on the north side into four parts by lateral arcades resting on massive rectangular pillars. The south wall, which connected the church to the cathedral of Notre Dame, was reconstructed in the 12th century to add greater strength and support for the new arcades that were constructed. The marks of the stonemasons can still be seen on the vault of the third traverse.
The nave and choir of the cathedral of Notre Dame were built next, in the 13th century, against the south wall of the church of St. Étienne. The first part constructed was the porch and bell tower, at the western end of the nave, between the baptistery and the nave. This part of the church, like the residence of the bishop at the other end, had a strongly military appearance, as if to stress the power of the bishop in temporal as well as spiritual affairs.
The cloister, which served as a place of meditation for the bishop and the dozen canons who served him, was built in the 13th century on the north side of the cathedral. It consists of pointed arches resting on double Corinthian columns. The decoration of the capitals of the columns features the key, the symbol of the bishops of Fréjus, and the fleur-de-lis, the symbol of Charles I of Anjou, the brother of Louis IX of France, who had become the Count of Provence in 1246.References:
The trulli, typical limestone dwellings of Alberobello in the southern Italian region of Puglia, are remarkable examples of corbelled dry-stone construction, a prehistoric building technique still in use in this region. These structures, dating from as early as the mid-14th century, characteristically feature pyramidal, domed, or conical roofs built up of corbelled limestone slabs. Although rural trulli can be found all along the Itria Valley, their highest concentration and best preserved examples of this architectural form are in the town of Alberobello, where there are over 1500 structures in the quarters of Rione Monti and Aja Piccola.
The property comprises six land parcels extending over an area of 11 hectares. The land parcels comprise two districts of the city (quarters or Rione Monti with 1,030 trulli; Rione Aia Piccola with 590 trulli) and four specific locations.
Trulli (singular, trullo) are traditional dry stone huts with a corbelled roof.