The Royal Palace of Valladolid was the official residence of the Kings of Spain during the period in which the Royal Court had its seat in Valladolid between 1601 and 1606, and a temporary residence of the Spanish Monarchs from Charles I to Isabella II, as well as of Napoleon during the War of the Independence. Currently is the headquarters of the 4th General Sub-inspection of the Army.
Despite the fact that kings were present in Valladolid often, they lacked an official residence until the 17th century. When the Royal Court moved to the city, the palace of Francisco de Cobos fulfilled that function. Francisco de los Cobos was a Secretary of State under Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (King Charles I of Spain). Born in Úbeda, De the Cobos forged a spectacular political career. He married in 1522 with María de Mendoza, daughter of the Counts of Ribadavia, achieving thus the nobility rank that he lacked. De los Cobos built his palace nearby his in-laws (Palace of the Counts of Ribadavia) and next to St. Paul's Church, according to a 1524 project of royal architect Luis de Vega. The building was built around a magnificent, Renaissance-styled courtyard. Charles V later ordered its extension, resulting in a building of complicated compositions like several courtyards, chapel and state rooms.
Since the 19th century the takes in the General Captaincy of the 7th Military Region (currently the 4th General Sub-inspection) of the Army. At the beginning of the 20th century significant renovations are made, to arrive at the present with numerous structural changes to its original design.References:
The Church of Our Lady before Týn is a dominant feature of the Old Town of Prague and has been the main church of this part of the city since the 14th century. The church's towers are 80 m high and topped by four small spires.
In the 11th century, this area was occupied by a Romanesque church, which was built there for foreign merchants coming to the nearby Týn Courtyard. Later it was replaced by an early Gothic Church of Our Lady before Týn in 1256. Construction of the present church began in the 14th century in the late Gothic style under the influence of Matthias of Arras and later Peter Parler. By the beginning of the 15th century, construction was almost complete; only the towers, the gable and roof were missing. The church was controlled by Hussites for two centuries, including John of Rokycan, future archbishop of Prague, who became the church's vicar in 1427. The roof was completed in the 1450s, while the gable and northern tower were completed shortly thereafter during the reign of George of Poděbrady (1453–1471). His sculpture was placed on the gable, below a huge golden chalice, the symbol of the Hussites. The southern tower was not completed until 1511, under architect Matěj Rejsek.
After the lost Battle of White Mountain (1620) began the era of harsh recatholicisation (part of the Counter-Reformation). Consequently, the sculptures of 'heretic king' George of Poděbrady and the chalice were removed in 1626 and replaced by a sculpture of the Virgin Mary, with a giant halo made from by melting down the chalice. In 1679 the church was struck by lightning, and the subsequent fire heavily damaged the old vault, which was later replaced by a lower baroque vault.
Renovation works carried out in 1876–1895 were later reversed during extensive exterior renovation works in the years 1973–1995. Interior renovation is still in progress.
The northern portal is a wonderful example of Gothic sculpture from the Parler workshop, with a relief depicting the Crucifixion. The main entrance is located on the church's western face, through a narrow passage between the houses in front of the church.
The early baroque altarpiece has paintings by Karel Škréta from around 1649. The oldest pipe organ in Prague stands inside this church. The organ was built in 1673 by Heinrich Mundt and is one of the most representative 17th-century organs in Europe.