Bernegg Castle was built in the mid to late 13th century for the Freiherr von Calfreisen, though it was probably called Calfreisen Castle until the 15th century. A mention of Otto von Calfreisen in 1231 indicates that the family lived in the area before the castle was built. They may have lived in an earlier castle which was replaced in the mid 13th century or in the village. In 1259 and again in 1286 the Freiherr was mentioned in the castle. After the extinction of the Calfreisen family in the 14th century, the castle was acquired by the Unterwegen family. Hans von Underwegen was mentioned at the castle in 1386, though they may have acquired it earlier. In 1428 it was acquired by the Sprecher family, who changed the name to Bernegg. The castle then vanishes from the historical record until the mid 16th century when it was described as a ruin.
The castle ruin is located on a hill south of Calfreisen village. The palas is a rectangular building about 11 by 13 meters and four stories tall. The walls are 2.4–2 m thick at the base, tapering to 1.8 m on the upper levels. The ground floor probably served as the castle's cellar. The second story has several small arrow slits in the walls. One of the arrow slits on the south wall was expanded into a door way which now serves as the entrance into the castle. The original high entrance on the third story south wall is still intact. The remains of a brick oven can be seen on the fourth story.References:
The Erfurt Synagogue was built c. 1094. It is thought to be the oldest synagogue building still standing in Europe. Thanks to the extensive preservation of the original structure, it has a special place in the history of art and architecture and is among the most impressive and highly rated architectural monuments in Erfurt and Thuringia. The synagogue was constructed during the Middle Ages on the via regia, one of the major European trade routes, at the heart of the historical old quarter very close to the Merchants Bridge and the town hall. Many parts of the structure still remain today, including all four thick outer walls, the Romanesque gemel window, the Gothic rose window and the entrance to the synagogue room.
After extensive restoration, the building was reopened in 2009. On display in the exhibition rooms is an collection of medieval treasures discovered during archaeological excavations. This includes 3,140 silver coins, 14 silver ingots, approx. 6,000 works of goldsmithery from the 13th and 14th centuries and an intricately worked wedding ring of the period, of which only two others are known to exist anywhere in the world. A mikveh (Jewish bath) has been excavated close by (13th/14th century). The Old Synagogue, the Small Synagogue and two Jewish cemeteries together form a network of historical buildings and sites which vividly portray the role of Jewish life in the history of Erfurt.