The National Museum of History of Albania was opened in 1981. Above the entrance of the museum is a large mural mosaic titled The Albanians that depicts purported ancient to modern figures from Albania's history. The museum includes the following pavilions, the Pavilion of Antiquity, Middle Ages, Renaissance, Independence, Iconography, National Liberation Antifascist War, Communist Terror, and Mother Teresa.
The Pavilion of Antiquity is the most important and one of the richest with objects in the National Historical Museum, with 585 objects. The displayed objects start with the Late Paleolithic, where prehistoric culture is proved lively and powerful in our lands, and ends with objects belonging to the Early Middle Ages (4th to 8th centuries). The objects of the prehistoric settlement of Maliq represent the Neolithic flourishing since the middle of the fourth millennium until about 2600 BC.
The exhibited objects and the coins of silver and bronze embossed on behalf of the Illyrian kings of the centers of Durrës, Apollonia, Shkodër, Byllis and Amantia, discovered in the provinces of South Illyria of the 4th to 3rd centuries BC, indicate a strong economy and urban Illyrian culture in general. Impressive are sculptures of the Apolloniates school or God Apollo, one of the most beautiful sculptures of the time (6th century BC). Quite interesting are: the mosaic of the 'Beauty of Durres' (4th century BC), the head of Artemis (3rd century BC), the anthropomorphic appearance of river Vjosa (3rd or 2nd century BC), the head of a man of limestone (5th century AD), vases decorated with red figures, and others. The findings of Monumental Tomb of Lower Selca, Pogradec (3rd century AD) occupy an important place.
In the Pavilion of the Middle Ages, visitors have access to the economic, social, political and cultural development of Albanians from the 6th century until the 15th. A special corner in this pavilion is dedicated to the Principality of Arber. The handover of power from Skuraj to Topiaj is expressed in the heraldic emblem of Karl Topia located in the monumental portal of the monastery of John Vladimir in Elbasan. A special object of the Pavilion of the Middle Ages is the Epitaph of Gllavenica, which dates back to the year 1373. With photos, documents and objects is given the resistance against the Ottoman occupation of Albanians, as well as key economic developments, political and social life of the country through maps, engravings of the time and quite original publications, the visitor knows Skanderbeg, who personifies the Struggle of the Albanians against the Ottoman Occupation.
The Renaissance Pavilion is one of the richest with original objects, documents, books, photographs, national flags, weapons, banknotes, and other cultural objects. Most of the objects are unique to the national history and culture of the Albanians. The objects displayed in the showcases of the pavilion during the period from the mid-19th century until 1912. An object with national value is the flag of the patriotic Society 'Desire' of the Albanian colony of Sofia in Bulgaria. Visitors have the opportunity to look closely the desk and the collection of books that are there, of one of the most prominent ideologists of the Albanian national ideology Sami Frasheri (1825-1904).
The Pavilion of Independence reflects the key historical moments after the Declaration of Independence in 1912 until 1939. The Declaration (Proclamation) of Independence of Albania from the National Assembly of Vlora on 28 November 1912 and subsequently the formation of the Provisional Government of Albania constitute two important acts of the Albanian national state. In the areas of this pavilion is reflected the Conference of Ambassadors in London (1912-1913). The short reign of Prince Wied in Albania in 1914 marks an important moment in the history of the establishment of the foundations of the Albanian state. The political clashes between the country's governing elite culminated in the movement of June 1924 led by Fan Noli. In the areas of this pavilion is the corner dedicated the patriotic contribution of Fan S. Noli one of the outstanding figures in the history of the Albanian nation and the state of the 20th century.
A collection of 70 items of the Post-Byzantine art in Albania: icons, a proskynetarion, some pairs of Holy Doors and an iconostasis are on display in this pavilion. These objects belonged to different churches in Albania: Gjirokastra, Elbasani, Fieri, Berati etc., dating from the 16th century until the early 19th century. Almost all the best painters who have left impressive works in the churches of Albania, Macedonia and Greece, such as: Onufri, Onufër Qiprioti, David Selenica, Kostandin Shpataraku, Kostandin Jeromonaku, the Zografi brothers, the Çetiri brothers, and Mihal Anagnosti are represented in this pavilion. The iconostasis (altar screen decorated with icons) comes from the church of the monastery of Saint John Vladimir in Elbasan.
This pavilion, through its 220 objects, reflects the events starting from the War of Vlora in 1920 until the end of World War II in 1945. It shows the reaction of several Albanian intellectuals in the 1920s and 30s against the rise to power in Italy of fascism. Chronologically, the pavilion displays the ensuing events related to the installation of the fascist regime in Albania on 7 April 1939 and the beginning of organized antifascist resistance. The Albanian volunteers who took part in the War of Spain have their place in this pavilion too. There are also many relics from national martyrs and heroes who gave their lives in the war against Fascism and Nazism. Particular emphasis has been given to the contribution of the powerful (British, Soviet and American) allies and their missions in Albania. In this pavilion, there are also documents which reflect the support, sheltering and protection of the Jewish population during the war, an expression of the deep humanism of the Albanian people.
The Pavilion of the Communist Terror was inaugurated in 2012. In this pavilion are displayed documents, photographs and objects, which belong to the period of one-party system in Albania from 1945 to 1990. The historical content of this pavilion is further enriched by film images, provided by the Central Film Archives. An important part of the Pavilion are the documentary and photographic materials which reflect the cleansing operations against the anticommunist forces, a special court against the political opponents during the war as well as the liquidation of the anti-communist opposition. In the showcases are displayed relics which belonged to numerous persons convicted or executed by the regime of that time.
This pavilion is dedicated to Mother Teresa’s family, life and work. The visitors are acquainted with her charitable work for which she has been assigned with many international awards. In the stands of the pavilion there are photos of global personalities who met Mother Teresa as Jacques Chirac, Bill Clinton, Tony Blair, Ibrahim Kodra etc. Undoubtedly, the personal objects used by her increase the curiosity of thousands of visitors in the National History Museum.References:
Pembroke Castle is a Norman castle, founded in 1093. It survived many changes of ownership and is now the largest privately owned castle in Wales. It was the birthplace of Henry Tudor (later Henry VII of England) in 1457.
Pembroke Castle stands on a site that has been occupied at least since the Roman period. Roger de Montgomerie, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury founded the first castle here in the 11th century. Although only made from earth and wood, Pembroke Castle resisted several Welsh attacks and sieges over the next 30 years. The castle was established at the heart of the Norman-controlled lands of southwest Wales.
When William Rufus died, Arnulf de Montgomery joined his elder brother, Robert of Bellême, in rebellion against Henry I, William's brother and successor as king; when the rebellion failed, he was forced to forfeit all his British lands and titles. Henry appointed his castellan, but when the chosen ally turned out to be incompetent, the King reappointed Gerald in 1102. By 1138 King Stephen had given Pembroke Castle to Gilbert de Clare who used it as an important base in the Norman invasion of Ireland.
In August 1189 Richard I arranged the marriage of Isabel, de Clare's granddaughter, to William Marshal who received both the castle and the title, Earl of Pembroke. He had the castle rebuilt in stone and established the great keep at the same time. Marshal was succeeded in turn by each of his five sons. His third son, Gilbert Marshal, was responsible for enlarging and further strengthening the castle between 1234 and 1241.
Later de Valence family held Pembroke for 70 years. During this time, the town was fortified with defensive walls, three main gates and a postern. Pembroke Castle became de Valence's military base for fighting the Welsh princes during the conquest of North Wales by Edward I between 1277 and 1295.
Pembroke Castle then reverted to the crown. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the castle was a place of peace until the outbreak of the English Civil War. Although most of South Wales sided with the King, Pembroke declared for Parliament. It was besieged by Royalist troops but was saved after Parliamentary reinforcements arrived by sea from nearby Milford Haven. Parliamentary forces then went on to capture the Royalist castles of Tenby, Haverfordwest and Carew.
In 1648, at the beginning of the Second Civil War, Pembroke's commander Colonel John Poyer led a Royalist uprising. Oliver Cromwell came to Pembroke on 24 May 1648 and took the castle after a seven-week siege. Its three leaders were found guilty of treason and Cromwell ordered the castle to be destroyed. Townspeople were even encouraged to disassemble the fortress and re-use its stone for their purposes.
The castle was then abandoned and allowed to decay. It remained in ruins until 1880, when a three-year restoration project was undertaken. Nothing further was done until 1928, when Major-General Sir Ivor Philipps acquired the castle and began an extensive restoration of the castle's walls, gatehouses, and towers. After his death, a trust was set up for the castle, jointly managed by the Philipps family and Pembroke town council.
The castle is sited on a strategic rocky promontory by the Milford Haven Waterway. The first fortification on the site was a Norman motte-and-bailey. It had earthen ramparts and a timber palisade.
In 1189, Pembroke Castle was acquired by William Marshal. He soon became Lord Marshal of England, and set about turning the earth and wood fort into an impressive Norman stone castle. The inner ward, which was constructed first, contains the huge round keep with its domed roof. Its original first-floor entrance was through an external stairwell. Inside, a spiral staircase connected its four stories. The keep's domed roof also has several putlog holes that supported a wooden fighting-platform. If the castle was attacked, the hoarding allowed defenders to go out beyond the keep's massive walls above the heads of the attackers.
The inner ward's curtain wall had a large horseshoe-shaped gateway. But only a thin wall was required along the promontory. This section of the wall has a small observation turret and a square stone platform. Domestic buildings including William Marshal's Great Hall and private apartments were within the inner ward. The 13th century keep is 23 metres tall with walls up to 6 metres thick at its base.
In the late 13th century, additional buildings were added to the inner ward, including a new Great Hall. A 55-step spiral staircase was also created that led down to a large limestone cave, known as Wogan Cavern, beneath the castle. The cave, which was created by natural water erosion, was fortified with a wall, a barred gateway and arrowslits. It may have served as a boathouse or a sallyport to the river where cargo or people could have been transferred.
The outer ward was defended by a large twin-towered gatehouse, a barbican and several round towers. The outer wall is 5 metres thick in places and constructed from Siltstone ashlar.
Although Pembroke Castle is a Norman-style enclosure castle with great keep, it can be more accurately described as a linear fortification because, like the later 13th-century castles at Caernarfon and Conwy, it was built on a rocky promontory surrounded by water. This meant that attacking forces could only assault on a narrow front. Architecturally, Pembroke's thickest walls and towers are all concentrated on its landward side facing the town, with Pembroke River providing a natural defense around the rest of its perimeter.