Medieval castles in Castile and León

Castrojeriz Castle

Castrojeriz village is considered one of the landmarks of historic interest in the Camino de Santiago. Its rich history may take up consideration as castro Visigoth, or perhaps, also, Roman fort, (they say was founded by Julius Caesar) in whose castle was developed important battles between Christians and Moors. The first mention of this castle dates from the 9th century during the skirmishes with the Muslim forces. Ther ...
Founded: 9th century AD | Location: Castrojeriz, Spain

Fuensaldaña Castle

Fuensaldaña Castle construction started in the 13th century, but it is not until the 15th century that the structure acquires today"s configuration. It was built by the Vivero family. The family became linked to the region"s history when the future Catholic Monarchs got married in their castle. Inside, the building was shaped as a "U" around the cortyard, which today has been made into the parliament ...
Founded: 13th century | Location: Fuensaldaña, Spain

Montemayor del Río Castle

Montemayor del Río Castle probably doesn"t date back to before the 15th century, and has more the character of a palace than of a strength. It has two existing enclosures. From the outer one only the entrance, flanked by two turrets, remains. The inner has an irregular groundplan, adapted to the outline of the land it was build on. In the interior two floor levels can still be traced which were arranged around a c ...
Founded: 15th century | Location: Montemayor del Río, Spain

Sarracín Castle

Castillo de Sarracín is a castle-fortress located near the village of Vega de Valcarce in Spain, situated on the most ancient European pilgrimage route known as the way of Saint James – El Camino de Santiago. The castle was built around the 9th Century and was used by the Knights Templars to protect the pilgrim routes. The castle has been used until the 16th century and has been abandoned ever since.
Founded: 9th century AD | Location: Vega de Valcarce, Spain

Vozmediano Castle

The 14th-century Vozmediano Castle is located atop great hills on the border with Aragon. Throughout the structure you can see various construction styles from different periods; Roman surrounding walls, a Muslim watchtower and medieval walls with battlement hexes. The castle is currently in ruins although it was made up of a double walled enclosure, the outer walls being strengthened on the most vulnerable corner by a g ...
Founded: 14th century | Location: Vozmediano, Spain

Villafuerte Castle

Villafuerte Castle was erected in the 15th century, forming pat of the defensive line drawn alongside of the river. Its first lord was García Franco, a Jew who later on converted to Christianity. It might have been built in order to control his properties. Its layout is of the so-called 'tower castle'; an almost square, small enclosure with round towers (with a 3-meter diameter) at 3 corners and the keep at th ...
Founded: 15th century | Location: Villafuerte, Spain

Soria Castle Ruins

The city of Soria formed in a valley near the castle that defended the Douro Riverbanks on the border between the Crowns of Aragon and Castile. The city was destroyed towards the end of the 12th century when Sancho of Navarre attacked it, therefore a great defensive wall was built to prevent further destruction. The wall defended a surface of 100 hectares that went from the Douro River up to the pastureland known as “La ...
Founded: 12th century | Location: Soria, Spain

Curiel de Duero Castle

Castle of Curiel de Duero was built in the 7th-11th century to the site of older fort, even from Roman times. At the beginning of the 21st century the castle lied in ruins. In 2003, a hotel company began an intensive restoration process that ended in 2006 , serving since then as  a hotel with 24 rooms.
Founded: 7th century AD | Location: Curiel de Duero, Spain

Montealegre de Campos Castle

The castle of Montealegre, built in the 12th century, was mentioned for the first time in 1173, when Rodrígo Gutiérrez was appointed lord of Montealegre; together with the castles of Ampudia, Belmonte, Torremormojón, Medina de Rioseco, Mucientes and Trigueros, it formed the defence line of the southern border of the Kingdom of León. The castle was revamped in 1297 by Alfonso Tello Pérez de Meneses, appointed lord o ...
Founded: 12th century | Location: Montealegre de Campos, Spain

Laguna de Negrillos Castle

Castle of Laguna de Negrillos is one of the fortress that belonged to the Conde Luna, with a characteristic structural style which features for a square floor and use of masonry , except in the corners, whose arris are built in ashlar stone. The keep tower and the crenellated walls are preserved. It was arisen in the 13th century, although what you can seen today is the reconstruction carried out in the 15th century by ...
Founded: 13th century | Location: Laguna de Negrillos, Spain

Bonilla de la Sierra Castle

Bonilla de la Sierra castle has three wall sections and three turrets of different styles and origins. The main par of the castle was formed by the Tower of Homage, of the 14th century, it has matacanes and round arches, and under the tower is the main yard and the rooms. The castle contains 14th-century paintings. It was the resting place of the prelates of the Ávila bishopric, and held important episcopal synods, as t ...
Founded: 14th century | Location: Bonilla de la Sierra, Spain

Ledesma Castle

Ledesma still has most of the granite wall which historically has surrounded the town. A large part of what is still standing was built in times of Fernando II of Leon, in the 12th century, but in the 15th century several parts of it were rebuilt with well-carved masonry. Many stone mason marks can be seen among these stones. Out of the eight doors it once had, the only one that is still preserved is  the one called ...
Founded: 12th century | Location: Ledesma, Spain

Olmillos Castle

The construction of the Olmillos Castle began in 1446. It has been traditionally known as the castle of the Cartagena, according the original owners. At the beginning of the 19th century, immediately after the French invasion, the guerrillas Santos Padilla and Melchor Cossío lit fire to the castle. Today it is a hotel.
Founded: 1446 | Location: Olmillos de Sasamón, Spain

Villalonso Castle

Villalonso Castle is one of the best conserved castles in the province of Zamora. The castle is a typical and notable example of 15th-century architecture; its construction may be attributed to Juan de Ulloa and his wife María de Sarmiento, whose coats of arms can be seen above the entrance gate. It played an important role during the siege of the queen Isabel the Catholic on Toro during her war against Juan "La B ...
Founded: 15th century | Location: Villalonso, Spain

Berlanga de Duero Castle

Berlanga de Duero Castle, which is now in ruins, dates back to the 15th century though it was built over a 10th-century Muslim fortress of which there are no remnants. It originally belonged to the Tovar family who ordered the construction of the village’s collegiate. This castle played an important role, along with the defensive wall, in defending the villages along the Douro riverbanks during the Muslim Conquest. Of t ...
Founded: 15th century | Location: Berlanga de Duero, Spain

Medinaceli Castle

Medinaceli Castle was built in the 9th century and rebuilt in the 15th century. There aren’t many remains left of this castle which was of great importance during the Middle Ages. According to legends, inside the castle, which is now completely restored, there was an Arabic citadel where Al-Mansur was buried after being defeated and killed in the Battle of Calatañazor in 1002, although, there aren’t any remains of th ...
Founded: 15th century | Location: Medinaceli, Spain

Trigueros Castle

The history of Trigueros Castle isn"t very well known. It is not built on a strategic position because, although located on a small hill in the village, it is dominated by other higher hills. So, the castle was probably more a fortified residence than a military strength. Also the name of the village church, an older building on a higher hill; Santa Maria del Castillo, seems to indicate that the most suitable place o ...
Founded: 14th century | Location: Trigueros del Valle, Spain

Villanueva de Cañedo Castle

The castle of Villanueva del Cañedo (also known as the castle of Buen Amor) was built on the remains of a previous castle of the 11th century, and of which the basement is still preserved. In 1477 the castle became property of Alonso Ulloa de Fonseca Quijada, Bishop of Ávila. Fonseca reconstructed the castle turning it into a Renaissance palace. Between 1958 and 1960 the castle was restored by its current owner ...
Founded: 15th century | Location: Topas, Spain

Castillejo de Robledo Castle

Castillejo de Robledo castle and its lands were property of the Order of Malta until it was suppressed by Pope Clement V in 1311. After that the estate passed to the Knights Hospitaller and then to the residents of the town. In the town there was an old Moorish fortification where the current castle was built in the 12th century. The remains of the original wall are visible and are characterized by a greater thickn ...
Founded: 12th century | Location: Castillejo de Robledo, Spain

Puente del Congosto Castle

The origins of Puente del Congosto Castle dates from the 12th and 13th centuries. It was built for defensive reasons, to control the route which connected Ciudad Rodrigo with Avila. In 1393, Enrique III granted the manor of the Puente del Congosto to Gil Gonzalez Davila, which rebuilt the castle, which would be Posada Real. The Duke of Alba bought the castle to the Emperor Carlos in 1539, adding to the rectangular tower ...
Founded: 12th century | Location: Puente del Congosto, Spain

Featured Historic Landmarks, Sites & Buildings

Historic Site of the week

Church of Our Lady before Týn

The Church of Our Lady before Týn is a dominant feature of the Old Town of Prague and has been the main church of this part of the city since the 14th century. The church's towers are 80 m high and topped by four small spires.

In the 11th century, this area was occupied by a Romanesque church, which was built there for foreign merchants coming to the nearby Týn Courtyard. Later it was replaced by an early Gothic Church of Our Lady before Týn in 1256. Construction of the present church began in the 14th century in the late Gothic style under the influence of Matthias of Arras and later Peter Parler. By the beginning of the 15th century, construction was almost complete; only the towers, the gable and roof were missing. The church was controlled by Hussites for two centuries, including John of Rokycan, future archbishop of Prague, who became the church's vicar in 1427. The roof was completed in the 1450s, while the gable and northern tower were completed shortly thereafter during the reign of George of Poděbrady (1453–1471). His sculpture was placed on the gable, below a huge golden chalice, the symbol of the Hussites. The southern tower was not completed until 1511, under architect Matěj Rejsek.

After the lost Battle of White Mountain (1620) began the era of harsh recatholicisation (part of the Counter-Reformation). Consequently, the sculptures of 'heretic king' George of Poděbrady and the chalice were removed in 1626 and replaced by a sculpture of the Virgin Mary, with a giant halo made from by melting down the chalice. In 1679 the church was struck by lightning, and the subsequent fire heavily damaged the old vault, which was later replaced by a lower baroque vault.

Renovation works carried out in 1876–1895 were later reversed during extensive exterior renovation works in the years 1973–1995. Interior renovation is still in progress.

The northern portal is a wonderful example of Gothic sculpture from the Parler workshop, with a relief depicting the Crucifixion. The main entrance is located on the church's western face, through a narrow passage between the houses in front of the church.

The early baroque altarpiece has paintings by Karel Škréta from around 1649. The oldest pipe organ in Prague stands inside this church. The organ was built in 1673 by Heinrich Mundt and is one of the most representative 17th-century organs in Europe.