St. Peter's Priory (Sankt Peters Klosters kyrka) was one of Denmark's early monastic houses. It was established before 1166 during the tenure of Eskil, Archbishop of Lund, for Benedictine nuns. It was originally dedicated to Saint Mary and Saint Peter, but by 1200 it was simply referred to as St. Peter's Priory. The original church was built in the latter half of the 1160s of sandstone with the rounded arches of the Romanesque style.
The church was rebuilt in brick and expanded about 1300 in the Gothic style. The entire complex consisted of three ranges with the priory church forming the fourth side of a quadrilateral enclosure. The complex included a dormitory, refectory and cellars, and a wing for lay sisters. The church over time came into possession of many income properties which paid rents to sustain the priory. There are records of several exchanges of farms between St. Peter's Priory and the chapter of Lund Cathedral.
In the course of the Reformation Denmark became officially a Lutheran kingdom in October 1536. All religious houses and their many acquired income properties reverted to the crown. The entire archive of the priory was lost except for a few letters regarding the disposition of the priory near the time of the Reformation. The last letter of the prioress, dated 1537, giving up the priory is found among them. The estate was given to Eskil Oxe by the crown until 1565 when it passed into the possession of Jorgen and Inger Brahe, the maternal uncle and aunt of Tycho Brahe, the famous Danish astronomer.
About 1600 all the conventual buildings were demolished, leaving the priory church to serve as the parish church of St Peter's. The burial ground continued to be used for burials until modern times.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.