Pukkila Manor is named after the Bock family who governed the estate from 1540s until 1720s. The numerous owners of Pukkila Manor were high-ranking officials from Turku. The manor’s current main building was built by Justice Court of Appeal, Christoffer Johan Rappe (1719-1776) who later became the county governor of the Province of Turku and Pori.
The main building of Pukkila Manor was built in 1762 and represents rococo style. Parts of the manor’s original rococo interior from Rappe’s time has remained; however, most of the rooms have been arranged in the neo-classical style of the owner Rehbinder who followed Rappe. The herb garden represents Rappe’s era, and it features herbs and plants which were typical to the 18th century. Pukkila Manor was opened to the public in 1970. The manor has been furnished as a late 18th century home for a family with many children.
The manor museum is open to the public Wed-Sun in summertime. In May, end of August and September groups by previous appointment.
Reference: National Board of Antiques
The Kalozha church of Saints Boris and Gleb is the oldest extant structure in Hrodna. It is the only surviving monument of ancient Black Ruthenian architecture, distinguished from other Orthodox churches by prolific use of polychrome faceted stones of blue, green or red tint which could be arranged to form crosses or other figures on the wall.
The church is a cross-domed building supported by six circular pillars. The outside is articulated with projecting pilasters, which have rounded corners, as does the building itself. The ante-nave contains the choir loft, accessed by a narrow gradatory in the western wall. Two other stairs were discovered in the walls of the side apses; their purpose is not clear. The floor is lined with ceramic tiles forming decorative patterns. The interior was lined with innumerable built-in pitchers, which usually serve in Eastern Orthodox churches as resonators but in this case were scored to produce decorative effects. For this reason, the central nave has never been painted.
The church was built before 1183 and survived intact, depicted in the 1840s by Michał Kulesza, until 1853, when the south wall collapsed, due to its perilous location on the high bank of the Neman. During restoration works, some fragments of 12th-century frescoes were discovered in the apses. Remains of four other churches in the same style, decorated with pitchers and coloured stones instead of frescoes, were discovered in Hrodna and Vaŭkavysk. They all date back to the turn of the 13th century, as do remains of the first stone palace in the Old Hrodna Castle.
In 2004, the church was included in the Tentative List of UNESCO"s World Heritage Sites.