Nyborg Castle was first mentioned in 1193, but the town itself was not mentioned before the year 1202. There must have been wooden or half-timbered buildings inside the walls, but we have not, as yet, found traces of them. The fortress was built on a small hill. Archaeological excavations have shown that the first moat around the fortress was a dry moat. In the first half of the 1200's, a palace was built along the western ring wall of the Nyborg fortress. The most recent excavations show that a corresponding stone building was raised along the north wall and they were connected. The palace building was the finer of the two, built of bricks in two stories, and still exists in the remaining wing. There is a small, blocked-off arched window and an arched door leading to the cellar, which belong to the palace. In the preserved building, the king met with his parliament. Apparently the royal council and later the Danehof (parliament) met on the second floor.
Countless important events happened at the Danehof (Danish Parliament) gatherings in Nyborg. In 1276, King Erik Klipping succeeded in getting the nobles to acknowledge his little son, Erik Menved, as the heir to the throne. In 1282, Erik Klipping issued his coronation charter, also called Denmark's first constitution. In 1287, the same king's murderers were sentenced at Nyborg, including Chamberlain Stig, the only one of the Danehof nobles who hadn't voted for Erik Menved as Erik Klipping's successor.
During the almost 200 years that Nyborg Castle was the seat of the Danehof. The castle grew and changed in appearance. To the east, there is a large tower called Knud's Tower; now only the lower part is preserved. It was in all likelihood built in the 1300's. Around 1400 there was a building project that led to great expansion of the castle. The palace had a story added, making it 3 stories high. Shortly after that, the palace was extended to the south wall.
In the 1520's, King Frederik I was urged to make Nyborg is residence. It is unclear whether he actually did so, but there is evidence that he planned to. He had the west wing renovated, adding large, arched windows. Inside, several of the rooms were decorated with wall paintings of geometric patterns and a new ceiling construction.
In the 17th century, Nyborg was one of three major, fortified towns in Denmark, together with Fredericia and Copenhagen. Each was placed near an important body of water - in Nyborg's case, the Great Belt (Storebælt). In 1659 the city was captured by the Swedes and relieved by an expeditionary fleet sent by the Dutch, then Denmark's allies, commanded by admiral De Ruyter.
In 1867 the fortress was abolished and the town expanded beyond the ramparts. Much of the town's southern ramparts were destroyed in this process and converted into residential areas. The western and much of the northern ramparts still exist and form the scene of an annual theatre known as Nyborg Voldspil, which is Denmark's oldest outdoor theater.References:
From its origin as a small stronghold built by the ancient Illyrian tribe Dalmatae, becoming a royal castle that was the seat of many Croatian kings, to its final development as a large fortress during the Ottoman wars in Europe, Klis Fortress has guarded the frontier, being lost and re-conquered several times. Due to its location on a pass that separates the mountains Mosor and Kozjak, the fortress served as a major source of defense in Dalmatia, especially against the Ottoman advance, and has been a key crossroad between the Mediterranean belt and the Balkan rear.
Since Duke Mislav of the Duchy of Croatia made Klis Fortress the seat of his throne in the middle of the 9th century, the fortress served as the seat of many Croatia"s rulers. The reign of his successor, Duke Trpimir I, the founder of the Croatian royal House of Trpimirović, is significant for spreading Christianity in the Duchy of Croatia. He largely expanded the Klis Fortress, and in Rižinice, in the valley under the fortress, he built a church and the first Benedictine monastery in Croatia. During the reign of the first Croatian king, Tomislav, Klis and Biograd na Moru were his chief residences.
In March 1242 at Klis Fortress, Tatars who were a constituent segment of the Mongol army under the leadership of Kadan suffered a major defeat while in pursuit of the Hungarian army led by King Béla IV. After their defeat by Croatian forces, the Mongols retreated, and Béla IV rewarded many Croatian towns and nobles with 'substantial riches'. During the Late Middle Ages, the fortress was governed by Croatian nobility, amongst whom Paul I Šubić of Bribir was the most significant. During his reign, the House of Šubić controlled most of modern-day Croatia and Bosnia. Excluding the brief possession by the forces of Bosnian King, Tvrtko I, the fortress remained in Hungaro-Croatian hands for the next several hundred years, until the 16th century.
Klis Fortress is probably best known for its defense against the Ottoman invasion of Europe in the early 16th century. Croatian captain Petar Kružić led the defense of the fortress against a Turkish invasion and siege that lasted for more than two and a half decades. During this defense, as Kružić and his soldiers fought without allies against the Turks, the military faction of Uskoks was formed, which later became famous as an elite Croatian militant sect. Ultimately, the defenders were defeated and the fortress was occupied by the Ottomans in 1537. After more than a century under Ottoman rule, in 1669, Klis Fortress was besieged and seized by the Republic of Venice, thus moving the border between Christian and Muslim Europe further east and helping to contribute to the decline of the Ottoman Empire. The Venetians restored and enlarged the fortress, but it was taken by the Austrians after Napoleon extinguished the republic itself in 1797. Today, Klis Fortress contains a museum where visitors to this historic military structure can see an array of arms, armor, and traditional uniforms.