Virstantolppa is the oldest memorial in Lappeenranta. It stands in the site of remarkable battle in Russo-Swedish war in 1741. Over 4000 men were killed or injured in the battle on 23th August 1741 where Russian army conquered Lappeenranta. The battle was one the bloodiest in time. Two Swedish commanders were executed in Stockholm afterwards because of serious defeat.
The memorial was erected originally in 1818 and enhanced in 1924 and again 1949.
The Petersberg Citadel is one of the largest extant early-modern citadels in Europe and covers the whole north-western part of the Erfurt city centre. It was built after 1665 on Petersberg hill and was in military use until 1963. It dates from a time when Erfurt was ruled by the Electors of Mainz and is a unique example of the European style of fortress construction. Beneath the citadel is an underground maze of passageways that can be visited on guided tours organised by Erfurt Tourist Office.
The citadel was originally built on the site of a medieval Benedictine Monastery and the earliest parts of the complex date from the 12th century. Erfurt has also been ruled by Sweden, Prussia, Napoleon, the German Empire, the Nazis, and post-World War II Soviet occupying forces, and it was part of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). All of these regimes used Petersberg Citadel and had an influence on its development. The baroque fortress was in military use until 1963. Since German reunification in 1990, the citadel has undergone significant restoration and it is now open to the public as a historic site.