Weimar’s Ducal Vault is not a typical burial place for a royal family. Since 1832, the members of the House of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach have shared their tomb with the two most famous poets of Weimar classicism, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller. As a result, the mausoleum has been a popular site of veneration for the poets ever since the mid-19th century.
The construction of the Ducal Vault was commissioned by the Grand Duke Carl August and was built between 1823 and 1828 on the grounds of the Historic Cemetery, which had been established a few years earlier in 1818. The architect Clemens Wenzeslaus Coudray was in charge of overseeing the work on the Ducal Vault. Following the construction of the inner crypt, the sarcophagi of the ducal family, which were rescued from the flames when the City Castle burned to the ground in 1774, were transferred to the Ducal Vault. The first interment occurred on 16 December 1827 with the reburial of the alleged remains of Friedrich Schiller. Carl August died on 14 June 1828 before construction of the vault was completed. On 26 March 1832 Johann Wolfgang Goethe was laid to rest in the vault next to Schiller’s casket. By 1905 another 14 people had been buried there. After workers broke through the foundation wall separating the Ducal Vault and the Russian Orthodox Chapel, built in 1862, the grand ducal couple Maria Pavlovna and Carl Friedrich were reunited in death, each buried under the buildings of their religious beliefs.
A short time later, Augusta, the queen of Prussia, provided funds to remodel the interior of the chapel to reflect the historic affinity of the time.From 1952 to 1994, the official name of the ducal family’s vault was the »Goethe and Schiller Mausoleum«. In 1993/94, the vault underwent extensive renovation which reversed the alterations carried out in the previous decades. The chapel itself was remodeled in 2011.
The Ducal Vault is regarded today as one of the major works of classical architecture in Thuringia. The square, two-story structure is abutted by a Doric portico. When visitors enter the building, they find themselves in the chapel which features neoclassical artwork, a star-spangled dome over an oval opening in the floor and original interior furnishings dating back to the age of Empress Augusta. An especially new addition to the chapel is the large-format Bible presented in the altar vitrine. To the left of the entrance, a narrow staircase descends to the vault below containing the caskets of the poets and ducal family. Coudray arranged the caskets chronologically based on the date of death, starting with Duke Wilhelm IV (1598 -1662) at the north wall. The monumental bronze sarcophagus of Carl August lies along the main axis below the altar. A total of 43 caskets had been stored in the vault until 1994 when ten caskets of members of the ducal family had to be removed for conservational reasons. As part of a research project in 2008, scholars discovered that the remains inside Friedrich Schiller’s casket belonged to those of several individuals. Therefore, Friedrich Schiller’s casket is now empty.References:
The Palazzo Colonna is a palatial block of buildings built in part over ruins of an old Roman Serapeum, and has belonged to the prestigious Colonna family for over twenty generations.
The first part of the palace dates from the 13th century, and tradition holds that the building hosted Dante in his visit to Rome. The first documentary mention notes that the property hosted Cardinal Giovanni and Giacomo Colonna in the 13th century. It was also home to Cardinal Oddone Colonna before he ascended to the papacy as Martin V (1417–1431).
With his passing, the palace was sacked during feuds, and the main property passed into the hands of the Della Rovere family. It returned to the Colonna family when Marcantonio I Colonna married Lucrezia Gara Franciotti Della Rovere, the niece of pope Julius II. The Colonna"s alliance to the Habsburg power, likely protected the palace from looting during the Sack of Rome (1527).
Starting with Filippo Colonna (1578–1639) many changes have refurbished and create a unitary complex around a central garden. Architects including Girolamo Rainaldi and Paolo Marucelli labored on specific projects. Only in the 17th and 18th centuries were the main facades completed. Much of this design was completed by Antonio del Grande (including the grand gallery), and Girolamo Fontana (decoration of gallery). In the 18th century, the long low facade designed by Nicola Michetti with later additions by Paolo Posi with taller corner blocks (facing Piazza Apostoli) was constructed recalls earlier structures resembling a fortification.
The main gallery (completed 1703) and the masterful Colonna art collection was acquired after 1650 by both the cardinal Girolamo I Colonna and his nephew the Connestabile Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna and includes works by Lorenzo Monaco, Domenico Ghirlandaio, Palma the Elder, Salviati, Bronzino, Tintoretto, Pietro da Cortona, Annibale Carracci (painting of The Beaneater), Guercino, Francesco Albani, Muziano and Guido Reni. Ceiling frescoes by Filippo Gherardi, Giovanni Coli, Sebastiano Ricci, and Giuseppe Bartolomeo Chiari celebrate the role of Marcantonio II Colonna in the battle of Lepanto (1571). The gallery is open to the public on Saturday mornings.
The older wing of the complex known as the Princess Isabelle"s apartments, but once housing Martin V"s library and palace, contains frescoes by Pinturicchio, Antonio Tempesta, Crescenzio Onofri, Giacinto Gimignani, and Carlo Cesi. It contains a collection of landscapes and genre scenes by painters like Gaspard Dughet, Caspar Van Wittel (Vanvitelli), and Jan Brueghel the Elder.
Along with the possessions of the Doria-Pamphilij and Pallavacini-Rospigliosi families, this is one of the largest private art collections in Rome.