The Fort Bokar, often called Zvjezdan, is considered to be amongst the most beautiful instances of harmonious and functional fortification architecture. Built as a two-story casemate fortress by Michelozzo from 1461 to 1463, while the city walls were being reconstructed, it stands in front of the medieval wall face protruding into space almost with its whole cylindrical volume. It was conceived as the key point in the defense of the Pila Gate, the western fortified entrance of the city; and after the Minčeta Tower, it is the second key point in the defense of the western land approach to the city.

Bokar is said to be the oldest casemented fortress in Europe, which contains a small lapidary collection and numerous cannons.

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Founded: 1461-1463
Category: Castles and fortifications in Croatia

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The Travel Hacking Life (3 months ago)
Dubrovnik is widely known for the red rooftops of the Old Town and the almost 2 km (1200 miles) of medieval stones surrounding the city. For those who love appreciating architectural art, the city of Dubrovnik will surely take your breath away with Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque churches. This beautiful city is one the most touristic places of the Mediterranean once under the violence of wars and the destruction of an earthquake. This small and modest city has all the attributes to be on your bucket list: above all, the preserved beauty of its buildings, the scenery, and all its history. Apart from experiencing all the cultural heritage of the city, you can swim and sunbathe to enjoy some summer days. Croatia is also known for its beautiful beaches. We also recommend visiting restaurants and bars and trying the nightlife of this touristic town.
Josipa Basic (4 months ago)
Surely, one of the historical spots about which you could spend time writing on and on.. but the view.. ? breathless ?for Croatia full of life!
Yuliia (7 months ago)
I enjoy this place. Must visit in Dubrovnik.
Ivana Sošić Antunović (11 months ago)
Fabulous view!
Robert Zobel (11 months ago)
Just amazing.
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Featured Historic Landmarks, Sites & Buildings

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Trinity Sergius Lavra

The Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius is a world famous spiritual centre of the Russian Orthodox Church and a popular site of pilgrimage and tourism. It is the most important working Russian monastery and a residence of the Patriarch. This religious and military complex represents an epitome of the growth of Russian architecture and contains some of that architecture’s finest expressions. It exerted a profound influence on architecture in Russia and other parts of Eastern Europe.

The Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius, was founded in 1337 by the monk Sergius of Radonezh. Sergius achieved great prestige as the spiritual adviser of Dmitri Donskoi, Great Prince of Moscow, who received his blessing to the battle of Kulikov of 1380. The monastery started as a little wooden church on Makovets Hill, and then developed and grew stronger through the ages.

Over the centuries a unique ensemble of more than 50 buildings and constructions of different dates were established. The whole complex was erected according to the architectural concept of the main church, the Trinity Cathedral (1422), where the relics of St. Sergius may be seen.

In 1476 Pskovian masters built a brick belfry east of the cathedral dedicated to the Descent of the Holy Spirit on the Apostles. The church combines unique features of early Muscovite and Pskovian architecture. A remarkable feature of this church is a bell tower under its dome without internal interconnection between the belfry and the cathedral itself.

The Cathedral of the Assumption, echoing the Cathedral of the Assumption in the Moscow Kremlin, was erected between 1559 and 1585. The frescoes of the Assumption Cathedral were painted in 1684. At the north-western corner of the Cathedral, on the site of the western porch, in 1780 a vault containing burials of Tsar Boris Godunov and his family was built.

In the 16th century the monastery was surrounded by 6 meters high and 3,5 meters thick defensive walls, which proved their worth during the 16-month siege by  Polish-Lithuanian invaders during the Time of Trouble. They were later strengthened and expanded.

After the Upheaval of the 17th century a large-scale building programme was launched. At this time new buildings were erected in the north-western part of the monastery, including infirmaries topped with a tented church dedicated to Saints Zosima and Sawatiy of Solovki (1635-1637). Few such churches are still preserved, so this tented church with a unique tiled roof is an important contribution to the Lavra.

In the late 17th century a number of new buildings in Naryshkin (Moscow) Baroque style were added to the monastery.

Following a devastating fire in 1746, when most of the wooden buildings and structures were destroyed, a major reconstruction campaign was launched, during which the appearance of many of the buildings was changed to a more monumental style. At this time one of the tallest Russian belfries (88 meters high) was built.

In the late 18th century, when many church lands were secularized, the chaotic planning of the settlements and suburbs around the monastery was replaced by a regular layout of the streets and quarters. The town of Sergiev Posad was surrounded by traditional ramparts and walls. In the vicinity of the monastery a number of buildings belonging to it were erected: a stable yard, hotels, a hospice, a poorhouse, as well as guest and merchant houses. Major highways leading to the monastery were straightened and marked by establishing entry squares, the overall urban development being oriented towards the centrepiece - the Ensemble of the Trinity Sergius Lavra.

In 1993, the Trinity Lavra was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.