Vižula is an archaeological site near Medulin, confirmed to be populated from the Neolithic to the Early Middle Ages. Remains of a Neolithic settlement were found including wicker cottages glued together by soil and mud, as well as parts of the ceramics and some dishes. However, the most significant is the Roman villa, which has undergone systematic research, dating back to the 1st and the 2nd centuries. It was found that the villa had been constructed in three phases until the 6th century.
The structure was elevated from the sea coast by terraces, while its bottom part lies today sunk under the sea, giving only a glimpse of the pier remains. The villa was a residential country house for both noblemen and the Emperor. Its preserved architecture shows that the villa was facing the sea, with the floors partially decorated by mosaics, clearly visible shapes of the swimming pool, the water supply, toilet, led and masonry built sewage. The residential part of the villa is located on the western part of the Vižula peninsula. On its south-east is the jetty with storehouses and the premises for servants and slaves.
The findings of the floor mosaics are also interesting.They combine blue stone ceramic tiles and cubes forming geometric shapes. Found infrastructure remains speak of a comfortable life in the villa with floor heating which is used in modern building as well. Vižula has an opportunity to become a true archaeological park following the completion of the research. The two explorations of the nearby necropolis found several hundred graves made by different burial techniques, containing skeletons and urns, jewellery and initialled glass bottles.References:
The Petersberg Citadel is one of the largest extant early-modern citadels in Europe and covers the whole north-western part of the Erfurt city centre. It was built after 1665 on Petersberg hill and was in military use until 1963. It dates from a time when Erfurt was ruled by the Electors of Mainz and is a unique example of the European style of fortress construction. Beneath the citadel is an underground maze of passageways that can be visited on guided tours organised by Erfurt Tourist Office.
The citadel was originally built on the site of a medieval Benedictine Monastery and the earliest parts of the complex date from the 12th century. Erfurt has also been ruled by Sweden, Prussia, Napoleon, the German Empire, the Nazis, and post-World War II Soviet occupying forces, and it was part of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). All of these regimes used Petersberg Citadel and had an influence on its development. The baroque fortress was in military use until 1963. Since German reunification in 1990, the citadel has undergone significant restoration and it is now open to the public as a historic site.