The Verudela Fortress is one of the best preserved fortresses. When its control over Pula commenced, the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy decided to transform the town into the Monarchy's maritime centre, which meant the construction of not only numerous newly-built structures such as the arsenal, hospital or the Hydrographic Institute, but also its defensive system. Thus, a magnificent fortification system was erected, which included not only Pula but also some of its neighbouring villages such as Medulin or Fažana.
In the period from 1881 until 1918, 31 structure was erected along the area of Pula and its near surrounding, including artillery batteries and other necessary structures. The Punta Christo fortress, which is the biggest Austro-Hungarian fortress, was built in Štinjan, on the namesake Kristo peninsula. Erected in the late 19th century, it spread across more than ten thousand square meters and had as many as 270 rooms.
The fortress had an excellent geographic position with a view of the entrance into the Pula Bay and the jetty from one, and of Muzil and the Brijuni islands from the other sea side. A trench was dug up around it, separating it, while the passage was possible only through one of the three entrances.
The interior yards of the Punta Christo fortress provide the access to its underground premises. The fortress was abandoned after the WW2. Having been neglected, abandoned and dilapidated for a number of years, it was finally cleared. Today it is used as a site for organizing concerts, exhibitions, and other cultural events.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.