The Field of Mars or Marsovo Polye is a large park named after the Mars, Roman god of war. The history of Field of Mars goes back to the first years of Saint-Petersburg. At that time it was called Grand Meadow. Later there were organised solemnities in the honour of the victory in the Great Northern War and the Field was renamed Pleasure Field (Poteshnoe Pole). In the 1740s Pleasure Field for a short while was turned into a walking park with paths, lawn and flowers. Its next name – Tsarina’s Meadow – appears after the royal family commissioned F.B. Rastrelli to build the Summer Palace for Empress Catherine I. But near the end of the 18th century Tsarina’s Meadow became a military drilling ground where they erected monuments commemorating the victories of the Russian Army and where parades and military studies took place regularly.
In 1799 the Rumyantsev obelisk was placed in the center of the Field and in 1801 the monument to A. Suvorov was placed in the south section by M. Kozlovsky. A great military leader was represented as Mars (Roman god of war). In 1805 Tsarina’s Meadow was officially renamed Field of Mars. After the suggestion of Carlo Rossi the monument of A. Suvorov was moved to Suvorova Square. After the February Revolution in 1917 the Field of Mars finally lost its significance as a military drilling ground and became a memorial. In summer 1942 the Field of Mars was completely covered with vegetable gardens to supply the besieged Leningrad.
On 23 May 1917 the participants of February Revolution were buried there. 184 of 1382 citizens who were killed during the Revolution were buried in the common grave. In 1917-1919 a monument “To Fighters of Revolution” was erected above the graves. In 1918 the square was renamed to “The Place of the Victims of Revolution” but in 1944 it was renamed back.
On 6 November 1957 in the center of the Field was lit an Eternal Flame. It was the first in Russia. From here the Flame was delivered to Moscow in 1967 and was placed nearKremlin wall on the Tomb of Unknown Soldier. The Flame from the Field of Mars also burns on Piskaryovskoye Memorial Cemetery and on other memorials in Saint-Petersburg.References:
The Castle of Gruyères is one of the most famous in Switzerland. It was built between 1270 and 1282, following the typical square plan of the fortifications in Savoy. It was the property of the Counts of Gruyères until the bankruptcy of the Count Michel in 1554. His creditors the cantons of Fribourg and Bern shared his earldom. From 1555 to 1798 the castle became residence to the bailiffs and then to the prefects sent by Fribourg.
In 1849 the castle was sold to the Bovy and Balland families, who used the castle as their summer residency and restored it. The castle was then bought back by the canton of Fribourg in 1938, made into a museum and opened to the public. Since 1993, a foundation ensures the conservation as well as the highlighting of the building and the art collection.
The castle is the home of three capes of the Order of the Golden Fleece. They were part of the war booty captured by the Swiss Confederates (which included troops from Gruyères) at the Battle of Morat against Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy in 1476. As Charles the Bold was celebrating the anniversary of his father's death, one of the capes is a black velvet sacerdotal vestment with Philip the Good's emblem sewn into it.
A collection of landscapes by 19th century artists Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Barthélemy Menn and others are on display in the castle.