The Parish Church of St Clement's origins lie with a privately owned wooded chapel which is thought to have been destroyed during the Norman raids. Construction of the stone church began around the year 911, starting with a chapel which is now the nave. The church became a parish church no later than 1067, because it is known that Duke William II of Normandy granted half the tithes of the church to the Abbey of Montivilliers in Upper Normandy. Only parish churches were permitted to collect tithes.
In the 15th century the church was considerably enlarged by the addition of a chancel and transepts, giving it the usual cruciform shape of most Christian churches. It has been possible to ascertain the approximate date for these enlargements and alterations from the Payn Arms (the three trefoils) in the chancel. The Payns were the Seigneurs of Samares during the 15th century. Also from this period are the gargoyles on the East outside wall, and the murals or frescoes inside the church. When the church was enlarged, the roof was raised and constructed in stone. The line of this may still be observed on the tower arch and buttresses were also constructed to support the weight.References:
The city walls of Avila were built in the 11th century to protect the citizens from the Moors. They have been well maintained throughout the centuries and are now a major tourist attraction as well as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Visitors can walk around about half of the length of the walls.
The layout of the city is an even quadrilateral with a perimeter of 2,516 m. Its walls, which consist in part of stones already used in earlier constructions, have an average thickness of 3 m. Access to the city is afforded by nine gates of different periods; twin 20 m high towers, linked by a semi-circular arch, flank the oldest ones, Puerta de San Vicente and Puerta del Alcázar.