The Karakalou Monastery is situated on the southeast side of the Athos Peninsula in northern Greece, between the monasteries of Great Lavra and Iviron. Karakalou is dedicated to the Apostles Paul and Peter. It is ranked eleventh in the hierarchical order of the twenty monasteries located on the Mount Athos peninsula.
Founded in the 11th century, the monastery received its name after either the Roman emperor Karakala or the monk, Karakalas, who was said to be its founder. Karakalou was first mentioned in documents from 1018 and 1087. Built on the side of a mountain Karakalou appears now like a fortress overlooking the Mediterranean Sea, the consequence of having been destroyed twice.
In the 14th century it was devastated by Latin and pirate raids during the period of occupation by Frankish forces after they had conquered Constantinople in 1204. Then, prior to its rebuilding in the 16th century, the monastery was destroyed again by pirates. The emperors Andronic II and John V Paleologos rebuilt Karakalou after the first destruction and after the second raid it was rebuilt by Peter, the ruler of Moldavia and his descendants. According to the local athonite tradition, later on, Peter took monastic vows at Karakalou. In the 17th century, Karakalou was given ownership of the dependency of St. Nicholas in Ismaelia. Under Ottoman rule the monastery lost its estates to expropriation by the Turks. The monastery also played a role in the struggle by the Greeks for liberation of their homeland from Ottoman rule.
The main church, the katholikon, was built between 1548 and 1563 in the Athonite style. The murals were added in 1716, and in 1763 the outer narthex was painted with scenes from the Book of Revelations. The church houses a portable icon of the Apostles that was painted by Dionysius in the early 18th century. There are seven chapels within the walls of the monastery. In addition the monastery has eighteen Kellia, four in Karyes and fourteen in the forest southwest of the monastery. The monks of Karakalou have followed the coenobium discipline since 1813.
In its treasury, Karakalou, among many vestments, ecclesiastical vessels, and relics of saints, possesses portable icons of Ss. Peter and Paul and the Circumcision of Christ, and a piece of the Holy Cross. The library contains 279 manuscripts, including 42 on parchment, some 2,500 printed books, and many official documents.References:
Redipuglia is the largest Italian Military Sacrarium. It rises up on the western front of the Monte Sei Busi, which, in the First World War was bitterly fought after because, although it was not very high, from its summit it allowed an ample range of access from the West to the first steps of the Karstic table area.
The monumental staircase on which the remains of one hundred thousand fallen soldiers are lined up and which has at its base the monolith of the Duke of Aosta, who was the commanding officer of the third Brigade, and gives an image of a military grouping in the field of a Great Unity with its Commanding Officer at the front. The mortal remains of 100,187 fallen soldiers lie here, 39,857 of them identified and 60,330 unknown.