The Basilica of the Holy Apostles (Basilika St. Aposteln) is one of the twelve Romanesque churches built in Cologne in that period. Its glory is the domed clover leaf chancel, which was built around 1200. The story of how today’s building originated begins in the 11th century.
At that time the church was on the road in the direction of Aachen, directly ahead of the roman city walls at the western main gate.
In the 13th century the church was significantly enlarged. In addition to the clover leaf chancel there was also the octagonal dome above the crossing, which was added at this time, which gives St. Aposteln its monumental, almost Byzantine appearance. The old structures were retained and, in spite of the building modifications, were copied and integrated into the new construction project.
The sequential and complementary building phases can be well identified in the St. Aposteln church. An extraordinary and controversial combination of historical and modern art is shown with a glance into the choral arches: the modern paintings by Herrmann Gottfried from the years 1988 until 1994 always provoke a host of diverse opinions.References:
The Arch of Constantine is situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. It was erected by the Roman Senate to commemorate Constantine I's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312. Dedicated in 315, it is the largest Roman triumphal arch. The arch spans the Via triumphalis, the way taken by the emperors when they entered the city in triumph.
Though dedicated to Constantine, much of the decorative material incorporated earlier work from the time of the emperors Trajan (98-117), Hadrian (117-138) and Marcus Aurelius (161-180), and is thus a collage. The last of the existing triumphal arches in Rome, it is also the only one to make extensive use of spolia, reusing several major reliefs from 2nd century imperial monuments, which give a striking and famous stylistic contrast to the sculpture newly created for the arch.
The arch is 21 m high, 25.9 m wide and 7.4 m deep. Above the archways is placed the attic, composed of brickwork reveted (faced) with marble. A staircase within the arch is entered from a door at some height from the ground, on the west side, facing the Palatine Hill. The general design with a main part structured by detached columns and an attic with the main inscription above is modelled after the example of the Arch of Septimius Severus on the Roman Forum.