The Basilica of the Holy Apostles (Basilika St. Aposteln) is one of the twelve Romanesque churches built in Cologne in that period. Its glory is the domed clover leaf chancel, which was built around 1200. The story of how today’s building originated begins in the 11th century.
At that time the church was on the road in the direction of Aachen, directly ahead of the roman city walls at the western main gate.
In the 13th century the church was significantly enlarged. In addition to the clover leaf chancel there was also the octagonal dome above the crossing, which was added at this time, which gives St. Aposteln its monumental, almost Byzantine appearance. The old structures were retained and, in spite of the building modifications, were copied and integrated into the new construction project.
The sequential and complementary building phases can be well identified in the St. Aposteln church. An extraordinary and controversial combination of historical and modern art is shown with a glance into the choral arches: the modern paintings by Herrmann Gottfried from the years 1988 until 1994 always provoke a host of diverse opinions.References:
Narikala is an ancient fortress overlooking Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, and the Kura River. The fortress consists of two walled sections on a steep hill between the sulphur baths and the botanical gardens of Tbilisi. On the lower court there is the recently restored St Nicholas church. Newly built in 1996–1997, it replaces the original 13th-century church that was destroyed in a fire. The new church is of 'prescribed cross' type, having doors on three sides. The internal part of the church is decorated with the frescos showing scenes both from the Bible and history of Georgia.
The fortress was established in the 4th century and it was a Persian citadel. It was considerably expanded by the Umayyads in the 7th century and later, by king David the Builder (1089–1125). Most of extant fortifications date from the 16th and 17th centuries. In 1827, parts of the fortress were damaged by an earthquake and demolished.