St. Maria Lyskirchen

Cologne, Germany

St. Maria Lyskirchen is the smallest of the twelve Romanesque churches in Cologne. It was founded in 948, and the present building dates from 1210-1220, with some later additions in the Gothic style. The upper parts of the west front were rebuilt in the 19th century. The church is in the form of a three-aisled basilica, with a chancel flanked by two towers, only one of which was constructed to its full height, and an eastern apse. The building received only minor damage during the wars.

The church has a sculptured Romanesque portal, and a cycle of 13th century ceiling paintings. Rediscovered in the 19th century, they are unique in Cologne and show stories from the Old and New Testaments. The church contains the 'Schiffermadonna' (Seaman's Madonna), a wooden statue of 1420. A triptych by Joos van Cleve, with a central panel of the Lamentation, was sold in 1812; a few years later it was replaced with a copy by Benedikt Beckenkamp, which remains in the church.

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Details

Founded: 1210-1220
Category: Religious sites in Germany
Historical period: Hohenstaufen Dynasty (Germany)

Rating

4.6/5 (based on Google user reviews)

User Reviews

Ralf Krob (10 months ago)
The Romanesque, three-aisled gallery basilila was built between 1198 and 1225 as a typical church of the Staufer period. The vaulted frescoes and stained glass windows are well worth seeing. The Seifert organ dates from 1957. A place of silent prayer.
Eugen Safin (2 years ago)
Quiet and peaceful church. Great experience!
Morteza Mohammadi (2 years ago)
Ok
MortezaYT (2 years ago)
Ok
Bibi Bibubobo (3 years ago)
St. Mary in Lyskirchen is the smallest of the twelve large Romanesque basilicas in the old town of Cologne. The Roman Catholic parish church belongs to the archbishopric of Cologne and is located in the old town south. It was built in its present form as a three-aisled basilica between 1198/1200 and 1225. St. Mary in Lyskirchen is characterized by historical vault frescoes from the 13th century. The name Lyskirchen is probably derived from a Mr. Lisolvus or Lysolfus, who built the original building as a church of its own. The church as well as the attached sexton house and the sacristy are listed buildings.
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Castle of Lorca (Castillo de Lorca) is a fortress of medieval origin constructed between the 9th and 15th centuries. It consists of a series of defensive structures that, during the Middle Ages, made the town and the fortress an impregnable point in the southeast part of the Iberian Peninsula. Lorca Castle was a key strategic point of contention between Christians and Muslims during the Reconquista.

Archaeological excavations have revealed that the site of the castle has been inhabited since Neolithic times.

Muslim Era

It has not been determined exactly when a castle or fortress was first built on the hill. The first written documentation referring to a castle at Lorca is of Muslim origin, which in the 9th century, indicates that the city of Lurqa was an important town in the area ruled by Theudimer (Tudmir). During Muslim rule, Lorca Castle was an impregnable fortress and its interior was divided into two sections by the Espaldón Wall. In the western part, there was an area used to protect livestock and grain in times of danger. The eastern part had a neighbourhood called the barrio de Alcalá.

After Reconquista

Lorca was conquered by the Castilian Infante Don Alfonso, the future Alfonso X, in 1244, and the fortress became a key defensive point against the Kingdom of Granada. For 250 years, Lorca Castle was a watchpoint on the border between the Christian kingdom of Murcia and the Muslim state of Granada.

Alfonso X ordered the construction of the towers known as the Alfonsina and Espolón Towers, and strengthened and fixed the walls. Hardly a trace of the Muslim fortress remained due to this reconstruction. Muslim traces remain in the foundation stones and the wall known as the muro del Espaldón.

The Jewish Quarter was found within the alcazaba, the Moorish fortification, separated from the rest of the city by its walls. The physical separation had the purpose of protecting the Jewish people in the town from harm, but also had the result of keeping Christians and Jews separate, with the Christians inhabiting the lower part of town.

The remains of the Jewish Quarter extended over an area of 5,700 square m, and 12 homes and a synagogue have been found; the synagogue dates from the 14th century and is the only one found in the Murcia. The streets of the town had an irregular layout, adapted to the landscape, and is divided into four terraces. The synagogue was in the central location, and around it were the homes. The homes were of rectangular shape, with various compartmentalized rooms. The living quarters were elevated and a common feature was benches attached to the walls, kitchens, stand for earthenware jars, or cupboards.

Modern history

With the disappearance of the frontier after the conquest of Granada in 1492, Lorca Castle no longer became as important as before. With the expulsion of the Jews by order of Ferdinand and Isabella, Lorca Castle was also depopulated as a result. The castle was abandoned completely, and was almost a complete ruin by the 18th century. In the 19th century, the castle was refurbished due to the War of Spanish Independence. The walls and structures were repaired or modified and its medieval look changed. A battery of cannons was installed, for example, during this time. In 1931 Lorca Castle was declared a National Historic Monument.

Currently, a parador (luxury hotel) has been built within the castle. As a result, archaeological discoveries have been found, including the Jewish Quarter.