The Roman city of Cemenelum was founded in the 1st century AD as a staging post for Roman troops in the Alpes Maritime region and it later became the regional capital. Favorably located, Cemenelum was chosen as the principal seat of the province of Alpes Maritimae by Augustus in 14 BC. Later, the Romans settled further inland, on the opposite side of the river Paillon. Remains of the town on the Hill of Cimiez date to the 3rd century AD.
The Amphitheater at the northern end of the site was originally built of wood and seated only 500-600. It was later rebuilt in stone during the Severan dynasty (AD 193-217) with its capacity expanded to 5000 persons. The vaulted remains at Nice may be compared to other small amphitheaters in garrison towns in the Roman Empire. Seating in the amphitheater reflected class distinctions between officers and enlisted men, with the structure at Nice-Cimiez divided into two sections reached by separate entrances.
The amphitheatre is not as big or as well-preserved as those found in Arles or Nimes, but along with the Roman baths and arena, visitors can gain a sense of wonder into Roman life by paying a visit to the archaeological museum (Musée Archéologique de Nice-Cimiez) on Avenue des Arènes.
The Roman baths complex is the largest known in Gaul.
The city walls of Avila were built in the 11th century to protect the citizens from the Moors. They have been well maintained throughout the centuries and are now a major tourist attraction as well as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Visitors can walk around about half of the length of the walls.
The layout of the city is an even quadrilateral with a perimeter of 2,516 m. Its walls, which consist in part of stones already used in earlier constructions, have an average thickness of 3 m. Access to the city is afforded by nine gates of different periods; twin 20 m high towers, linked by a semi-circular arch, flank the oldest ones, Puerta de San Vicente and Puerta del Alcázar.