Broholm is a private estate and manor house, first mentioned in 1326 when owned by Absalon Jonsen Ulfeldt. From 1641, it was inherited by the Skeel and Sehested families for whom it was the seat from 1759 to 1930. The main wing with its round tower was built for Otte Skeel in 1644. In 1839, it was renovated in the Neo-Gothic style by Gustav Friedrich Hetsch. The corner tower was added in 1895 and the south wing in 1905. Substantial renovation and adaptation work was carried out in the 1920s and the 1950s. Part of the premises has now been converted into a hotel. There is also a museum of antiquities on the estate.
The Museum of North Antiquities is part of the manor and it has 10,000 antiquaries collected by Sehested, then (1881), owner of the manor. These antiquaries are a collection from an area of 5 miles (8.0 km) around the manor house. These finds are dated to the stone, bronze and iron ages. In addition, some gold ornaments were also found on the estate. Excavations revealed the Broholm gold hoard with an approximate weight of 4.15 kg. Deemed to be the biggest gold hoard of the country from the Migration Period, items include golden bracteates, as well as necklaces and pieces worn on the arm.
The estate is also famous for breeding of Broholmer dogs, of the St. Bernard Dog class of dogs with short hair with links to the pedigree of German Bulldog. These dogs are reported to be a common sight in the Copenhagen neighborhood. It is a national breed and the Copenhagen Kennel Club was charged with breeding them and establishing their pedigree. The Danish dog is also reported to be closely related to the English Mastiff. The better specimens are bred in the Broholm estate and hence given the name Broholmer Dogs.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.