Aquincum was an ancient city, situated on the northeastern borders of the Pannonia province within the Roman Empire. The ruins of the city can be found today in Budapest. It is believed that Marcus Aurelius may have written at least part of his book Meditations at Aquincum.

It was originally settled by the Eravisci, a Celtic tribe. Aquincum served as a military base (castrum), having been part of the Roman border protection system called limes. Around AD 41-54, a 500-strong cavalry unit arrived, and a Roman legion of 6,000 men was stationed here by AD 89. The city gradually grew around the fortress, and after Pannonia was reorganised by the Romans in AD 106, Aquincum became the capital city of Pannonia Inferior. The city had around 30,000 to 40,000 inhabitants by the end of the 2nd century, and covered a significant part of the area today known as the Óbuda district within Budapest. Ruins from the old Roman settlement can be seen in other parts of Budapest as well, notably Contra-Aquincum. These Roman structures were, during the 2nd and 3rd century AD, the heart of the commercial life of the Pannonia province. The excavations show evidence of the lifestyle of this period. The most important monuments in Aquincum are the two amphitheaters the Aquincum Civil Amphitheatre and the Aquincum Military Amphitheatre built in the 1st century AD.

People living in the settlement could enjoy the achievements of the Empire, like central heating in the houses, public baths, a Mithraeum and palaces, as well as two amphitheatres, the Aquincum Civil Amphitheater and the larger Aquincum Military Amphitheatre for gladiatorial combats and beast fights.

Many historic artifacts from the city now appear in the Aquincum Museum. The museum exhibits a reconstruction of the hydraulic system, Roman houses and paintings that have been recovered on site. The ruins of a three-level aqueduct have been discovered around the city.

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Founded: 41-89 AD
Category: Prehistoric and archaeological sites in Hungary

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User Reviews

Elena Rücker (11 months ago)
The museum has an extension and beautiful new indoor section.
Claudiu (13 months ago)
It's free on Sunday
Matthias Haeusser (13 months ago)
Huge area, a lot to see, signs should be in Latin also so everybody can read them.
Renee Pucky (15 months ago)
Loved being able to learn more about the Roman empire at the Aquincum Museum. Always wanted too and very cool.
Joe M (16 months ago)
If you are in the area and have any interest about ancient Rome and their way of life, this settlement is the place to go. Very nice staff and self-tour. Give yourself some time to dive in and read the plaques about everything there. I spent about 6 hours and loved every minute. Bus is best way to get there.
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