Mastekranen (The Masting Crane) is an 18th-century masting sheer and present landmark on Holmen, designed by architect Philip de Lange and built in 1748–51 as part of the Royal Naval Shipyard at Holmen.
Under the reign of Frederick III, Holmen was established through a series of land reclamations to replace the naval base and shipyard at Bremerholm. The first ship to be set a sea from Nyholm was Dannebrog in 1692 and un the following years the construction of all major vessels gradually moved there. The facilities at Holmen were constantly expanded over the next centuries.
Earlier the building of sailing ships had not required sheers to erect their mast, as it could be lifted into place by ropes and allowed to pivot around its foot. As ships became larger, it was no longer possible to mount their masts, taller and heavier, in this fashion. A crane was needed, tall enough to lift the entire mast vertically and then lower it into the ship. It was as a consequence of this development that the Masting Crane on Nyholm was erected in 1748–51. In the late 19th century, the increasing size and capacity of general harbour cranes began to overlap with the lofty but lightweight masting sheers and so their specialisation was no longer required. In 1918 all shipyard activities at Nyholm were discontinued and moved to Frederiksholm.
The Masting Crane is designed by Phillip de Lange in baroque style. While it appears to be a masonry tower with a wooden jib atop, the entire crane is in fact a timber structure with the outer wall only serving as a protective shield against sun, rain and wind. The uppermost wooden structure is kept together by tarred rope to make it more flexible and not to weaken the wood.
Even though the Masting Crane is 'just' a piece of industrial equipment, it has been designed with gradually lower windows for each floor to create an optical illusion making it appear taller and more imposing.References:
Roman Walls of Lugo are an exceptional architectural, archaeological and constructive legacy of Roman engineering, dating from the 3rd and 4th centuries AD. The Walls are built of internal and external stone facings of slate with some granite, with a core filling of a conglomerate of slate slabs and worked stone pieces from Roman buildings, interlocked with lime mortar.
Their total length of 2117 m in the shape of an oblong rectangle occupies an area of 1.68 ha. Their height varies between 8 and 10 m, with a width of 4.2 m, reaching 7 m in some specific points. The walls still contain 85 external towers, 10 gates (five of which are original and five that were opened in modern times), four staircases and two ramps providing access to the walkway along the top of the walls, one of which is internal and the other external. Each tower contained access stairs leading from the intervallum to the wall walk of town wall, of which a total of 21 have been discovered to date.
The defences of Lugo are the most complete and best preserved example of Roman military architecture in the Western Roman Empire.
Despite the renovation work carried out, the walls conserve their original layout and the construction features associated with their defensive purpose, with walls, battlements, towers, fortifications, both modern and original gates and stairways, and a moat.
Since they were built, the walls have defined the layout and growth of the city, which was declared a Historical-Artistic Ensemble in 1973, forming a part of it and becoming an emblematic structure that can be freely accessed to walk along. The local inhabitants and visitors alike have used them as an area for enjoyment and as a part of urban life for centuries.
The fortifications were added to UNESCO"s World Heritage List in late 2000 and are a popular tourist attraction.