Established from 1332 to 1339 as a foundation endowed by the wealthy patrician Konrad Groß for the elderly and needy. Considered the largest private endowment by any individual before 1500.
The Hospital of the Holy Spirit was established in 1332–39 by Konrad Gross, a wealthy patrician, for the care for the elderly and needy. It was the largest private endowment in the Holy Roman Empire up to 1500. After 1500 the building complex was extended over the Pegnitz according to plans by Hans Beheim the Elder. Two structures along the southern arm of the river and the north wall of the former hospital church with its polygonal ridge-turret survive.
From 1424 to 1796, the imperial regalia were kept in the hospital church (not reconstructed after the war). In the arcaded Kreuzigungshof, there are the central figures of Adam Kraft’s Crucifixion group (ca 1506/08) and the tomb monuments of Konrad Gross (d. 1356) and Herdegen Valzner (d. 1423).References:
Varberg Fortress was built in 1287-1300 by count Jacob Nielsen as protection against his Danish king, who had declared him an outlaw after the murder of King Eric V of Denmark. Jacob had close connections with king Eric II of Norway and as a result got substantial Norwegian assistance with the construction. The fortress, as well as half the county, became Norwegian in 1305.
King Eric's grand daughter, Ingeborg Håkansdotter, inherited the area from her father, King Haakon V of Norway. She and her husband, Eric, Duke of Södermanland, established a semi-independent state out of their Norwegian, Swedish and Danish counties until the death of Erik. They spent considerable time at the fortress. Their son, King Magnus IV of Sweden (Magnus VII of Norway), spent much time at the fortress as well.
The fortress was augmented during the late 16th and early 17th century on order by King Christian IV of Denmark. However, after the Treaty of Brömsebro in 1645 the fortress became Swedish. It was used as a military installation until 1830 and as a prison from the end of the 17th Century until 1931.
It is currently used as a museum and bed and breakfast as well as private accommodation. The moat of the fortress is said to be inhabited by a small lake monster. In August 2006, a couple of witnesses claimed to have seen the monster emerge from the dark water and devour a duck. The creature is described as brown, hairless and with a 40 cm long tail.