Anif Palace is located beside an artificial pond in Anif on the southern edge of Salzburg, Austria. The palace was once the seat of the bishops of Chiemsee, and then later was used as a court until the 19th century. It was remodeled between 1838 and 1848 in the neo-Gothic style. Anif is most famous for its use in several movies, including The Sound of Music.
Its origins cannot be exactly dated but there is a document from around 1520 showing that a palace called Oberweiher existing at this location. Its owner was the dominion directory bailiff Lienhart Praunecker. From 1530 the water palace is mentioned regularly as a fief given by the respective Archbishop of Salzburg. In this way it was given to the bishops of Chiemsee after a restoration by Johann Ernst von Thun in 1693; from then on, the bishops used it as a summer residence.
When Salzburg fell to Austria in 1806, the palace and the pond came into public ownership. The property was sold to Alois Count Arco-Stepperg in 1837. He rebuilt Anif Palace between 1838 and 1848 in new Gothic romanticizing style, and gave it its present-day look. Up to that time, the palace had simply consisted of a plain, four-story dwelling and a two-story connecting building to a chapel.
After the death of the Count in 1891 the property fell to his nearest female relative, Sophie, who was married to the Count Ernst von Moy de Sons; the palace therefore ended up in the hands of his old French noble family.
In 1918, the palace attracted public attention when King Ludwig III of Bavaria and his family and entourage fled to escape the November Revolution. With the Declaration of Anif on the 12/13 November 1918, Ludwig III refused to abdicate; however, he freed all Bavarian government officials, soldiers and officers from their oath because he was not able to continue the government. During World War II the German Wehrmacht units were accommodated in the palace, followed by American units in 1945.
The Anif Palace is still privately owned by the family von Moy, who restored it fundamentally between 1995 and 2000. Public tours of this historic building are not provided.References:
Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE. Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms.
Derbent has archaeological structures over 5,000 years old. As a result of this geographic peculiarity, the city developed between two walls, stretching from the mountains to the sea. These fortifications were continuously employed for a millennium and a half, longer than any other extant fortress in the world.
A traditionally and historically Iranian city, the first intensive settlement in the Derbent area dates from the 8th century BC. The site was intermittently controlled by the Persian monarchs, starting from the 6th century BC. Until the 4th century AD, it was part of Caucasian Albania which was a satrap of the Achaemenid Persian Empire. In the 5th century Derbent functioned as a border fortress and the seat of Sassanid Persians. Because of its strategic position on the northern branch of the Silk Route, the fortress was contested by the Khazars in the course of the Khazar-Arab Wars. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs.
The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus.
The site continued to be of great strategic importance until the 19th century. Today the fortifications consist of two parallel defence walls and Naryn-Kala Citadel. The walls are 3.6km long, stretching from the sea up to the mountains. They were built from stone and had 73 defence towers. 9 out of the 14 original gates remain.
In Naryn-Kala Citadel most of the old buildings, including a palace and a church, are now in ruins. It also holds baths and one of the oldest mosques in the former USSR.
In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List.